Module 17 Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 17 Exam 3 Deck (71):
1

where do early signs of systemic conditions manifest themselves

in the oral soft tissues

2

What are findings that may suggest a blood disorder

-gingival bleeding
-history of difficulty of controlling bleeding
-history of bruising
-numerous petichiae
-pallor of mucous membrane
-atrophy of papillae of tongue
-sore painful tongue
-infections, dont respond to normal tx
-server ulcerations
-exaggerated gingival response to local irritants

3

what is normal blood comprised of

55% plasma and 45% formed elements

4

what do the formed elements consist of?

44% erythrocytes
1% leukocytes

5

what does hematocrit show

-percentage packed volume of blood cells
-normal values are males 39-39% females 33-43%

6

Where do blood cells originate

bone marrow

7

what is a hemocytoblast

stem cell of origin

8

what cells leave the bone marrow and go to lymphoid tissue for maturing

agranulocytes (lymphocytes, monocytes)

9

What are the plasma proteins

albumin, gamma globulins, beta globulins, fibrinogen, prothrombin

10

what is albumin

maintains tissue fluid balance within the vascular system

11

what are gamma globulins

circulating antibodies essential to the immune system

12

what are beta globulins

aid in transport of hormones, metallic ions and lipids

13

what is fibrinogen and prothrombin essential for

blood clotting

14

if plasma is allowed to clot what is it called

serum

15

what is plasma composed of

90% water
10% plasma proteins, inorganic salts, gases substances being transported

16

What are erythrocytes

-RBC/corpuscles
-biconcave discs
-CO2 transported from cells

17

what are the functions of RBC

transport hemoglobin, carry 02 to the body, C02 transported from the cells

18

what is hemoglobin measured in

g/ml
normal values 12 to 17.2

19

what are the two kinds of WBC (leukocytes)

granulocytes, agranulocytes

20

what are the granulocytes

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils

21

what are the agranulocytes

lymphocytes, monocytes

22

what cells arrive first of the WBC

neutrophils

23

what functions as a transport medium for WBC

blood

24

what are lymphocytes

-round cells with round nucleus
capable of reverting to blast-like cells of origin and then multiplying as the immunologic need arises

25

what are monocytes

-bean shaped
-phagocytic
-in conn tissue differentiate into macrophages

26

what are neutrophils

PMN
-most numerous of WBC
-ameoboid in the tissues and function in phagocytosis, first line of defense

27

what are eosinophils

-increase during allergic reactions

28

what are basophis

-increases vascular permeability during inflammation so that the phagocytic cells can pass into the area

29

what are plateles

-formed element, no nucleus
-active in blood clotting mechanism

30

what is anemia

-reduction of the hemoglobin concentration, the hematocrit or the number of RBC to a level that is below normal

31

as a result of anemia what is diminished

oxygen carrying capacity to the cells-

32

anemias are classified by what

cause

33

what is anemia caused by blood loss

-acute- blood loss from trauma or disease
-chronic- internal leison with constant slow bleeding usually of GI or gyne origin

34

what is anemeia cause by increased hemolysis

-hereditary hemolytic disorders
-acquired hemolytic disorder

35

what is an example of a hereditary hemolytic disorders s

sickle cell disease

36

what are examples of aquired hemolytic disorders

from drugs infections, and certain physical and chemical agents

37

what is antibody mediated anemia, erythroblastosis fetalis

occurs when a mother is Rh- negative

38

what is erythroblastalis fetalis also known as

hemolytic disease of the newborn

39

what are 2 types of anemia cause by diminished production of RBC

nutritional deficency, bone marrow failure

40

what is nutritional defeciency in anemia

- inadequate intake or dietary choices
-ex:pernicious anemia- vit B12 absorbtion deficiency
- iron deficency anemia

41

what is an example of bone marrow failure in anemia

-aplastic anemia

42

what is aplastic anemia

-combination of anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia occurs which leads to a decrease in all cells formed in the bone marrow

43

what is the most prevalent anemia? second most?

iron deficency
anemia of chronic dieseases

44

when does anemia of chronic diseases occur

in pts with acute or chronic immune activation, pts. have low reticulocyte count, underprod of RBC

45

what is an example of an anemia caused by genetic blood disorders

thalassemia

46

What is thalassemia characterized by

absent or decreased production of hemoglobin

47

Is thalassemia inheritied? who does it effect the most?

-yes, mediterranean, african, middle eastern, south east asian descent

48

what is the most severe form of thalassema

thalassemia major (cooley's anemia)

49

what is tx for thalassemia

-transfusions
-folic acid
-bone marrow trans is cure during childhood
-steme cell transplant

50

what are the general signs and symptoms of anemia

-pale thin skin
weakness, fatigue, easy fatigability
dyspna on slight exertion, faintness
dimness of vision,
headache, vertigo, tinnitus
brittle nails

51

what is iron deficiency anemia

hypochromic microcytic anemia, hemoglobin deficient, blood corpuslces are smaller than normal

52

what can develop as a result of chronic iron deficency

plummer-vision syndrome

53

what are the causes of iron deficency anemia

-malnutrition/adsorbtion
-chronic infection
-increased demand
-chronic alcoholism
-chronic blood loss
-internal bleeding
-excessive menstrual flow
-frequent blood donations

54

what are the signs and symptoms of iron deficency anemia

-general weakness, headache, pallor
-fatigue on slight exertion

55

what are oral signs and symptoms of iron deficency anemia

-pallor of mucosa
-tongue changes- atrophic glossitis
-secondary irritations to thinned mucosa, may result from smoking, trauma, hot spicy foods
-angular chelitis
-increased risk of angular chelitis

56

What is tx for iron deficiency anemia

-oral ferrous iron
-folic acid
-nutritional counseling
-liquid preps for children may stain teeth

57

what are megablastic anemias

- abnormally large RBC
-result from deficiency of B12, folate or both

58

what are the principle types of megoblastic anemai

-pernicious anemia
- folate deficency anemia

59

what are B12 and folate essential for

RBC prod in bone marrow

60

what is pernicious anemia caused by

-decreased intake, increased requirement, impaired absorbtion of B12

61

what is pernicous anemia due to deficiency of intrinsic factor

failure of production of intrinsic factor, necessary for B12 adsorbtion

62

what age do you see pernicious anemia in

over 40 years of age

63

Is the childhood form a of pernicious anemia is there a gastric abnormality

no

64

what are the general clinical findings of pernicious anemia

- fatiuge, weakness, tingling, numbness of fingers and toes

65

what are CNS system involvement clinical findings of pernicious anemia

-dizziness, confusion, hypotension
-sever parathesia
- dimmed vision, abdominal pain, weight loss

66

what are the oral clinical findings of pernicious anemia

-tongue- atrophic glossitis, pain, inflammed, flabby, red, smooth, shiny
-sensitivity to hot or spicy food
-painful swallowing
-gingiva and mucosa pale, atrophic

67

what is the tx of pernicous anemia

-B12 injections 2x week then monthly

68

what is folate deficiency anemia-

like pernicous anemia, no CNS involvement

69

what are the etiologic factors of folate deficiency anemia

-decreased intake- inadequeate diet or adsorbtion
-increased requirement- pregnancy, cancer, tobacco, pts who take alot of asprin or antacids, drugs that impair utilization of folate

70

what are dietary sources of folate

-fresh fruits, green leafy veggies
-liver, kidney
-dairy products, whole grain cereal
-

71

what is folate deficiency most frequently related to

-malabsorbtion rather than inadequate intake