Flashcards in Monarchial States Deck (53)
How did Henry IV strengthen the government?
With the Duke of Sully as his finance minister, Henry IV established government monopolies over key commodities like salt. He also limited the power of the French nobility by limiting regional parliaments.
How was Louis XIII able to rise to power?
Cardinal Richelieu facilitated his rise to power by repressing the Huguenots and taking away many of the privileges given to them through the Edict of Nantes. Richelieu brought France into the Thirty Years War on the side of the Protestants rather than the Catholics to counter the traditional French enemy, Spain.
How was Louis XIV able to come to power?
After the death of Louis XIII, Louis XIV's mother appointed Cardinal Mazarin to be his regent. During Mazarin's control of France, he grappled with rebellions called the Fronde. Louis decided to rule without a chief minister after Mazarin's death.
How did Louis deal with the aristocracy?
He asserted a philosophy that the monarch enjoyed divine rights.
Who was Bishop Bossuet and what was his doctrine?
He was Louis's philosopher. He argued that because the king was chosen by God, only God could judge the king, not parliaments or nobles.
What palace did Louis for him to reside in? Where was it?
Versailles. It was a few miles outside of Paris.
How did Louis use Versailles to control the aristocracy?
Aristocrats were distracted by court gossip and ceremonial issues rather than trying to overthrow the King. The nobles at Versailles were pleased at their high social standing and tax exemptions.
Who was Louis's most important minister? What was his doctrine?
Jean-Baptiste Colbert. His doctrine was mercantilism.
What was mercantilism?
The goal of mercantilism was to build up a nation's supply of gold by exporting goods and minimizing imports.
What were the results of Colbert's economic policy?
France was divided into the Five Great Farms, which were large, custom-free regions. Colbert succeeded in expanding France's vast overseas empire by eventually controlling trading posts in India, the west coast of Africa, the Caribbean, and occupying Quebec. He also organized the French East India Company to compete with the Dutch, but it only hat limited success because of excessive government control and lack of interest.
How did Louis enhance his absolutism through religion?
He decided to eradicate Calvinism and in 1685 revoked the Edict of Nantes with the Edict of Fontainebleau, demolishing Huguenot churches and taking away their civil rights.
What were the effects of the revocation of the Treaty of Nantes?
Around 200,000 Huguenots were exiled to England and the Netherlands. Their exit weakened the French economy and in turn aided England and the Netherlands.
What was Louis XIV's foreign policy?
He engaged in a series of wars for territorial expansion, conquering small parts of Germany and Flanders.
What events started the War of Spanish Succession?
William of Orange of the Netherlands was appointed monarch of England, and he was committed to waging war against France. Additionally, the King of Spain died without an heir, and there were competing claims to the throne from different families, including a Bourbon.
What happened during the War of Spanish Succession and when did it occur?
It was a war between the French and the English and Dutch allies that lasted from 1702 to 1713.
What was the War of Spanish Succession ended by and what were the terms of the agreement?
It was ended by the Treaty of Utrecht, which left a Bourbon on the Spanish throne but forbade the same monarch from ruling France and Spain. It resulted in the containment of France but left the French peasantry hard pressed to pay taxes.
What were the two houses of the English Parliament?
The House of Commons and the House of Lords
What was the order of the Stuart monarchs?
James I, Charles I, Charles II, and James II.
Who was King James I?
He succeeded Elizabeth after her death. James I asserted his divine notion of kingship and sought to be an absolutist ruler.
Who was more powerful, the monarch or Parliament?
The monarch was generally more powerful, as he had the ability to summon and dismiss Parliament. However, Parliament needed to be consulted in order to raise taxes.
What were religious issues in James I's rule?
The previous Elizabethan agreement of toleration was not satisfying to radical Calvinists called Puritans.
What were the beliefs of Puritans?
Puritans wanted to see the English Church purified of all vestiges of Catholicism.
How did Charles I exacerbate religious tensions?
He pledged support for the Arminian wing of the Church, which favored free will over predestination, which further antagonized Puritans.
How did Charles I's relationship with Parliament decline?
Parliament only granted him customs abilities for one yea rather than the traditional life-long appointment. Charles also led a failed invasion of the Spanish port of Cadiz, which forced Charles to raise taxes. When Parliament members refused, they were imprisoned, making parliament put forward the Petition of Rights.
What was the Petition of Rights?
It stated that the king could not demand a loan without the consent of Parliament, prohibited for unjust imprisonment without probable cause, housing soldiers, and use of martial law against citizens.
Why did Charles dissolve Parliament?
A member of Parliament named John Eliot set forth a series of provoking resolutions.
What was the Personal Rule of Charles?
It was a period where Charles governed England without a Parliament. It nearly did away with Parliament, but was inhibited by civil war.
What forced Charles to call Parliament?
Charles tried to extend the Church of England to Scotland, but the Scots resisted and revolted. Charles called Parliament to collect money to put down the rebellion, but they refused and were dissolved, earning the name the Short Parliament.
Why was Charles forced to call Parliament again?
Charles was handily beaten by the Scots and was forced to pay a large war indemnity. In order to raise money, Charles called Parliament, called the Long Parliament because it lasted for 20 years.
How did tensions develop during the Long Parliament?
They impeached two of Charles's ministers and abolished the king's prerogative courts while a rebellion broke out in Ireland.
What was the Grand Remonstrance?
Parliament submitted a list of grievances from the past decade and demanded new ministers and a reformed Church of England. This sparked the English Revolution.
What occurred in the English Revolution?
The Parliament initially lost, but under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell, the New Model Army defeated the King's army, and soon after Charles was executed.
What was the government of England like after the Revolution?
England was officially a republic called the Commonwealth, but really was a military dictatorship under Cromwell.
Who were the Independents and who were the Presbyterians?
The Independents wanted a state church with a degree of religious freedom for others. Presbyterians wanted a state church without any dissent.
Who were the Levellers and Diggers?
They were a radical religious and political group that demanded a complete overhaul of English society, asking for universal male suffrage.
What conflicts did Cromwell face?
He had to deal with conflicts between Presbyterians and Independents in his government. He purged his government and army of Levellers and suppressed an pro-Stuart rebellion in Ireland. Cromwell also had problems controlling parliament, ultimately dividing England into 12 military districts
Who took power after Cromwell? Did he resolve any of the problems that preceded the Civil War?
The people were so tired of Cromwell they sought to return to the Stuart kings and Charles II took the throne. Charles II never resolved the problems of his father.
Who succeeded Charles II and what was his rule like?
James II succeeded Charles and immediately annoyed by allowing Catholics to hold governmental positions and repealing religious tests.
Why did the English revolt against James II?
He had goals to rule with absolute divine power and make England a Catholic country. This unified Protestant factions in England.
What was the Glorious Revolution?
It was the bloodless transition of power from James II to William of Orange. A Protestant faction invited William to take power, and William and Mary jointly took the throne.
What were the five provisions that followed the Glorious Revolution?
The Bill of Rights, The Act of Toleration, The Mutiny Act, The Act of Settlement, and The Act of Union.
What did the Bill of Rights provide?
Forbade the use of royal prerogative rights. Suspense and dispense of laws by the monarch was outlawed. Royal interference in elections not allowed. Monarchs were Protestant. Only Parliament could tax.
What was entailed by the Act of Toleration?
Granted the right of public worship to Protestant nonconformists but did not extend it to Unitarians or Catholics. However, nonconformists, Jews, and Catholics could not hold office until the Text Act was amended in the 19th century.
What was entailed by the Mutiny Act?
It allowed the civil government to govern the army. Desertion and mutiny are crimes. Parliament maintains the army. Parliament must be summoned once a year.
What was entailed by the Act of Settlement?
A Catholic Stuart cannot become an English monarch.
What was entailed by the Act of Union?
It unified England and Scotland.
What conditions allowed the Netherlands to be so successful in economic trade?
The Netherlands was aided by and caused the decline of Spain as an economic power. It had a central role in trade due to its geographic location and large navy. It soon found itself controlling the spice trade and raw materials from the Baltic.
Which city became the center of commerce in Northern Europe?
Amsterdam. It replaced Antwerp when it was sacked in the Dutch War for Independence and its harbor was closed as part of the Peace of Westphalia.
What changes in the economy allowed the Netherlands to become an international power?
The Bank of Amsterdam issued its own currency and easily raised capital, making Amsterdam the main banking center. The Dutch East India Company was founded funded as a joint-stock company under government control. This allowed the Dutch to create better cargo ships. The Dutch were also very responsive to price changes and changed commodities quickly.
What was the result of this Golden Ange in the Netherlands?
It produced a higher standard of living and equal distribution of wealth than the rest of Europe. It was very religiously tolerant, and Jews, Anabaptists, and Catholics settled easily within the Calvinist state.
What was the political structure of the Netherlands?
The Netherlands was very decentralized with each of the seven districts having extensive autonomy. Each district was controlled by wealthy merchants. Executive power came from the House of Orange, and the male head was the stadtholder, who was the military leader of the Netherlands.
Why was the seventeenth century a golden age of Dutch art?
Private collectors bought Dutch work, and art was treated as a commodity. Dutch style incorporated Baroque themes despite being majority Calvinist.