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Flashcards in The End of Imperialism Deck (8)
1

Who influenced Britain's gradual decolonization?

The United States were reluctant to allow Britain to maintain their vast empire. Because Britain was dependent on American loans, they were forced to concede, and gradually allowed decolonization to occur after India declared independence.

2

How did Israel become an independent nation?

Britain said they would withdraw from Palestine, allowing the United Nations to govern its fate. It planned to partition Palestine into Jewish and Arab homelands. On May 14, 1948, the Jewish state of Israel was founded, but it was immediately attacked by its Arab neighbors. However, the Jewish state pushed back against its enemies and the Arab Palestinian state never was created.

3

How did Egypt become an independent nation?

Egypt was essentially controlled by Great Britain since 1922. However, when Abdul Nasser became president of Egypt, he announced the nationalization of the Suez Canal. In response, France, Britain, and Israel invaded Egypt.

4

How did the Suez Crisis establish who the dominant powers were?

When the Soviet and American governments balked at the invasion of Egypt, the British and French withdrew according to their demands.

5

How did Egypt's independence bring about Africa's larger independence?

The British began the decolonization of sub-Saharan Africa. Ghana first declared independence, followed by Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda, and Kenya. These areas became independent without much trouble as they had few British settlers, but in Rhodesia, a large number of white settlers formed a white-supremacist government. It was eventually overthrown and the country was renamed Zimbabwe.

6

How did Indonesia become an independent state?

Although the Dutch wanted to retain its colonies as a part of national honor, they eventually agreed to recognize Indonesian independence after fighting a long, unwinnable struggle in the East Indies to retain the land they originally occupied.

7

How did Vietnam become an independent state?

A nationalist movement under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh, first created to fight the Japanese, then began to fight the French. France realized it could not effectively stamp out the resistance and divided Vietnam into a northern Communist state and a republic to the South dominated by the United States.

8

How did Algeria become and independent nation?

France almost erupted into civil war over the question of Algerian independence. It had been a French possession since 1830 and had over a million native French. Finally, Charles de Gaulle took over the government in 1958, and four years later granted Algeria independence.