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Flashcards in The Reformation Deck (46)

What was the Protestant Reformation?

It was a schism in Christianity from the Catholic church initially led by Martin Luther and then continued on by spiritual leaders like John Calvin.


What was the Catholic Reformation?

It was a counterreformation in which the Catholic church reformed its internal structure.


How was the Reformation a reflection of the way Europe was changing?

The humanism of the Renaissance led individuals to question practices such as the efficacy of religious relics and the value ton one's salvation. The printing press allowed Bibles to be printed, which weakened the Church's authority now that anyone could read it.


Who was the central figure in the Reformation?

Martin Luther


What were problems that the Church faced right before the Reformation?

Anticlericalism rising from the Black Death, the rise of pietism, the Avignon Papacy, and the Great Schism, where there were three competing popes. Other problems were poorly educated lower priests and simony, which promoted priests who did not know how to preach.


Why did the Black Death spawn anticlericalism?

The people lost respect for the clergy because of the poor performance of clergymen during the plague. This anticlericalism was seen in Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales and Boccaccio's The Decameron.


What was pietism?

It was the notion of a direct relationship between the individual and God, which reduced the importance of the Church.


What was the Avignon Church?

The Church moved to Avignon and became under French control after the French invasions made the French government above the Church.


Why were poorly educated lower priests a problem?

They could not properly respond to Luther's challenge to the Church.


What was simony?

The selling of church offices


What movements arose in the late Middle Ages that responded to these problems in the Church?

The Lollards and the Hussites


Who was John Wycliffe?

John Wycliffe was an English preacher who questioned the wealth of the Church, transubstantiation, the teachings of penance, and the selling of indulgences. His followers were known as the Lollards, and he translated the Bible into English.


Who was Jan Hus?

Jan Hus was a Bohemian preacher who led a religious and nationalistic revolt. Hus argued that the authority of the Bible mattered, not the Church, and spoke out against the immoral behavior of the Church. He asked the the congregation should be given the cup during mass as well as the wafer, which was reserved to clergymen.


What was the Council of Constance?

It was one of the last Councils of the conciliar movement in which the Western Schism was resolved and one pope was chosen at Rome. John Hus was burned at the stake at this meeting.


What was Martin Luther horrified by?

He was horrified by the selling of indulgences.


What was the selling of indulgences?

The church sold indulgences to raise money, which in turn released the buyer from purgatory.


Who was Johann Tetzel?

He was a Dominican friar who raised money for the Church throughout Germany by selling indulgences. Lutger was horrified by his selling of indulgences.


What were Luther's 95 Theses?

They were tacked the the Castle Church at Wittenberg. Luther complained that German money was going to Rome. Luther also argued that the pope had no right to sell indulgences and that the pope could only remit penalties he himself had placed on someone.


Who was the Pope during this time?

Pope Leo X


Who did Luther debate with and what did the debate consist of?

He debated with a prominent theologian John Eck, who called Luther a Hussite while Luther claimed Hus was unjustly condemned.


What were Luther's main books and what did they say?

Address to the Christian Nobility: he argued that secular government had the right to reform the Church. On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church: Luther attacked other teachings of the church, like the sacraments. Liberty of a Christian Man: one is saved by faith alone and the Bible is the sole source of this faith.


What was the Diet of Worms? When was it?

It was a meeting of the German nobility to discuss the ideas of Luther and determine his fate. It was in 1521.


What occurred at the Diet of Worms?

Luther was excommunicated by the Church officially and he was banned from the Holy Roman Empire by Charles V, the Holy Roman Empire.


Who saved and supported Luther despite the Diet of Worms?

Frederick the Elector of Saxony. Luther was hidden by Frederick in Wartburg Castle, where Luther translated the Bible into German.


What were the teachings of Luther's new Church?

Luther instead of seven sacraments, reduced them only to baptism and communion (the Eucharist). He changed the Eucharist by rejecting the idea of transubstantiation (transfroming into flesh of Christ), instead saying that Christ was already present in the sacrament. He also did away with celibacy.


Why did Luther's new religion spread so quickly?

Luther's teachings did not threaten the existing social order, and he vehemently opposed the German Peasants' Revolt of 1525 in his name. Luther was also willing to subordinate his church to German princes, as he thought only heaven truly mattered. Finally, The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was unable to effectively control his empire, fighting the Hapsburg-Valois Wars, battling the Ottoman Empire, and ruling all Hapsburg possessions in Europe and the New World.


What was the Schmalkaldic War and what was the outcome?

The Schmalkaldic War was a series of battle fought between Charles V and members of the Protestant Schmalkaldic League. It ended in the Peace of Augsburg.


What was the Peace of Augsburg? When was it?

The Peace of Augsburg was in 1555, and it allowed princes of German states to determine what religion their territory would be. However, it did not include Calvinism and non-Lutheran Protestant groups.


Who were the Anabaptists?

The Anabaptists denied the idea of infant baptism, saying that it only works when consenting adults are baptized. Eventually, rebaptism became popular but was declared illegal in the Holy Roman Empire. Anabaptists briefly ruled Munster but were quickly removed.


Who were the Antitrinitarians?

The Antitrinitarians denied the validity of the Trinity.


Who was Ulrich Zwingli?

Zwingli was another reformer in the Swiss city of Zurich. He accused monks of indolence and high living, rejected the veneration of saints, said unbaptized children were not damned to hell, and claimed that tithing was not a divine institution.


What were significant differences between Luther and Zwingli?

Zwingli denied all the sacraments, unlike Luther. He believed that the Eucharist did not entail the actual presence of Christ, but was a spiritual connection instead. Zwingli was also a Swiss Patriot.


Who was John Calvin?

He was a French Protestant living in Geneva. He argued that grace was given to few individuals and the rest were condemned to hell. This concept of predestination had no room for free will. Unlike the Catholic Church, he preferred his followers to focus on Earthly matters.


Where did Calvinism spread to?

It spread to Scotland and France; French Calvinists were called Huguenots. Calvinists also founded the Massachusetts Colony.


How did Calvinism save the Protestant Reformation?

It gave new life to a movement where Lutheranism was being overtaken by the newly reformed Catholic Church.


How was the English Reformation different from other parts of Europe?

It was a political act rather than a religious one.


Why did Henry VIII want to create the new Church?

He wanted to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon and the Catholic Church did not recognize divorce.


What were the steps that Henry VIII took to create a new Church?

Henry VIII formed the Reformation Parliament, which gave him authority in Religious matters. Parliament enacted the Act in Restraint of Appeals, which declared that all spiritual cases within England were within the King's jurisdiction. Finally, the Act of Supremacy acknowledged the King of England as the head of the Church of England.


Was the Church of England really Protestant?

No, it kept many aspects of Catholic worship, but it did not recognize the primacy of the Pope. It was essentially Catholicism without the Pope.


Who was Edward VI?

Henry VIII's son, who tried to implement genuine Protestantism into the Church of England.


Who was Mary Tudor?

She was the wife of the fanatically Catholic Philip II of Spain. She tried to bring England back to the Catholic Church, and burned many Protestants at the stake. Religious settlement finally came after Elizabeth I came to power.


What was the Catholic Reformation?

It was the internal Catholic response to the Protestant Reformation that sought to counteract some of the successes of the Protestant side.


What were some steps the Church took in the Catholic Reformation?

The Catholic Church created the Index of Prohibited Books and revived the Inquisition. Additionally, the Council of Trent created further reforms in the Church.


What was the Council of Trent?

Unlike the previous conciliar movement, the Council of Trent was dominated by the papacy and enhanced its power. It placed limits on simony, mandated the education of clergy, endorsed their original teachings on the sacraments, salvation, and Church tradition.


How did the Catholic Reformation develop Baroque art?

The Council of Trent criticized the religious failings of the mannerist art style and urged more intensely religious art.


What was the Society of Jesus/the Jesuits?

It was a Catholic society that recommended austere behavior, founded by Ignatius of Loyola. They practiced total subservience to the Church. The Jesuits distinguished themselves as a teaching order and worked as Catholic missionaries in areas where Lutheranism was popular, for example, Poland.