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Who was Phillip of Hesse?

He protected Martin Luther from Charles V.


What did Charles V do?

He tried to persecute Luther at the Diet of Worms.


Who was Thomas More?

He was an official who disputed Henry VIII's break from the Catholic Church.


Who were the Medicis?

They were great bankers of Florence who were the Pope's bankers and produced 4 popes.


When were the Italian Wars? What effect did they have on Renaissance writers?

The Italian Wars were from the late 15th century to the early 16th century, leaving Italy broken and fragmented under the control of other powers. It made Renaissance writers like Machiavelli and Guicciardini yearn for the classical era of leaders who would do anything for their country.


What did Galen believe?

Galen believed that the humors were the basic elements of the human body.


What did William Harvey show?

The had the first published theory of the circulation of blood, saying that the body was an integrated system.


What was a characteristic of Renaissance sculptures?

They stood in the contrapposto stance, an asymmetrical alignment of the human figure.


How were the two David sculptures understood in Florence?

They symbolized the independent state of Florence standing up to tyranny or states that threatened its borders.


How was the northern Renaissance art different from Italian Renaissance art?

It used oil instead of tempera paints, they focused on everyday life and interior scenes, and put the viewer into the same frame as the painting.


What was present in Northern Renaissance are?

Religious symbolism, as the Northern Renaissance placed a larger emphasis on religion than the Italian Renaissance.


Who was the first art historian?

Giorgio Vasari


What were characteristics of mannerism?

They had intense, emotional drama, elongated, flame-like torsos, and lack of depth.


How was mannerism associated with the counter-Reformation?

It had intense emotional drama that El Greco often associated with religion.


What was a backlash to Baroque architecture?

Neo-Classicism: it sought after the Baroque period to return back to the Greek and Roman artwork.


Why did Charles V abdicate?

The Reformation and subsequent religious wars led to his abdication.


As Charles V abdicated, what did he pass?

He passed the Peace of Augsburg


What was the Edict of Restitution?

It was a law passed during the Thirty Years War that sought to return the Holy Roman Empire to the conditions under the Peace of Augsburg


What ended Habsburg control of the Holy Roman Empire?

The Peace of Westphalia. It split the Holy Roman Empire into 365 separate and independent states.


How did communication problems hasten the decline of the Holy Roman Empire?

It was difficult to communicate between Vienna and Madrid, hastening the decline of the Holy Roman Empire.


What was the Third Act of Succession?

If Edward IV were to die, then Mary would become queen, and after her Elizabeth.


What was Luther's initial goal in posting the 95 Theses?

He merely wanted to reform the Church.


What was the final act of the English Reformation?

The Act of Supremacy


Who were the only Protestants that believed in the separation of Church and state?

The Anabaptists.


Who was Christine de Pizan?

She wrote the City of Ladies, wherein she called for gender equality.


Who was Margaret Fell Fox?

She was the wife of George Fox, the founder of the Quakers, and played an active role in religion.


What were charivari?

They were rituals of public shaming used to reinforce gender roles and impose communal values.


What was the war of Devolution?

It was a war fought over towns in the Spanish Netherlands between the French and the Spanish. It ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.