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Flashcards in Napoleon Deck (24)

How was Napoleon a product of the Revolution?

The revolution offered many opportunities to young men of ability, and Napoleon became a supporter of the Jacobin faction, eventually being made a general.


What was Napoleon's military career like prior to the overthrow of the directory?

Napoleon conquered North and Central Italy by beating the combined Austrian and Sardinian armies. He also invaded Egypt to inflict damage on the British Empire, but was defeated by a British fleet under Horatio Nelson.


How did Napoleon overthrow the Directory?

He returned to France after his defeat in Egypt and staged a coup d'etat with Abbe Sieyes. Napoleon set up a constitution with himself as First Consul. It guaranteed universal male suffrage but left Napoleon in real control of the state. Napoleon staged a plebiscite vote for the new constitution and it passed.


How did Napoleon consolidate control?

He issued an amnesty for people in the Revolution, and aristocrats returned to France. He promoted those who were loyal to him while creating a secret police to root out his opponents and purged the Jacobins.


How did Napoleon decrease hostility with French Catholics and the Church?

He created a concordant with Pope Pius VII that stated that Catholicism was the main religion of France, but remained tolerant of Protestants and Jews without establishing Catholicism as the state religion. The papacy gave up claims to confiscated land, while the clergy were required to declare oaths of loyalty to the state, and Napoleon did away with the Revolutionary calendar.


What was the Napoleonic Code?

It provided a single unitary legal system for all of France rather than the localized codes under the monarchy. It enshrined the equality of people under the law and guarded the rights of property owners.


How did the Napoleonic Code reverse advances made by women in the Revolution?

It reaffirmed the paternalistic structure of French society by making women legally dependent on their husbands and fathers. Women could not sell property without approval of a husband and divorce was restricted.


How did Napoleon become emperor?

After another plebiscite made him Consul for Life, he held another plebiscite that proclaimed him emperor. During his coronation, he grabbed the crown out of the poe's hands an placed it on his own head, making it clear that he was Emperor of France not from God but from his own achievements.


How did Napoleon change the organization of the aristocracy?

He created a new aristocracy that was based on service to the state rather than birth.


Why was Napoleon so successful on the battlefield?

He was a military genius. Additionally, his citizen-soldiers created from the levee en masse were patriotic and could be trusted, unlike mercenaries. Napoleon also fully integrated artillery with infantry and cavalry. He encouraged his men to live off of the and and used effective supplying techniques.


How did Napoleon raise money for the war effort?

He sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States.


How did Napoleon antagonize the British?

Despite being at peace with Britain as a result of the Treaty of Amiens, he sent troops to Haiti and prepared to invade England. However, at the Battle of Trafalgar Admiral Nelson, dying in the battle, destroyed the French fleet.


What occurred during Napoleon's campaign on land in Europe?

After the formation of the Third Coalition, where Austria and Prussia joined Great Britain, Napoleon destroyed the Austrians at the Battle of Ulm. He then defeated the Russians at Austerlitz and proceeded to abolish the Holy Roman Empire, instead forming the Confederacy of the Rhine, a collection of 13 German states, which in the long-term would have consequences adverse to France. Napoleon then conquered the Prussians at the Battle of Jena. Prussia was saved from extinction, but was halved and was forced to be an ally of France and abandon Britain.


What was the Continental System?

It was economic waged on Britain, where Napoleon banned British goods from arriving on the European continent. It was unsuccessful and weakened the economies of the states Napoleon conquered.


How did the views of the French change over the time of their conquests?

Initially, French troops brought with them the ideals of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, establishing religious toleration and imposing the Napoleonic Code. However, over time they were seen as harsh occupiers, and Napoleon placed figureheads on thrones across Europe. The Continental System also helped galvanize resistance against Napoleon.


What were the three reasons for Napoleon's eventual defeat?

The peninsular war in Spain, growing nationalism in French-occupied Europe, and the fateful 1812 invasion of Russia.


How did the war in Spain lead to Napoleon's defeat?

When Napoleon appointed his brother to the Spanish throne, the Spanish nation rose to expel the French. Napoleon was forced to leave 350,000 troops in Spain where they were tied down by guerrilla warfare.


How did growing nationalism in Europe lead to Napoleon's defeat?

While Napoleon dealt with Spain, nationalism increased in other parts of Europe. In Germany, intellectuals began to see the struggle with France as a method to unify Germany under Prussian leadership. Prussia's army was reformed under Baron von Stein and Count von Hardenberg, who also abolished serfdom and ended the Junker monopoly of land.


How did the 1812 invasion of Russia lead to Napoleon's defeat?

Napoleon took his Grand Army of 600,000 men into Russia, where the Russians retreated an performed a "scorched earth" campaign. With winter setting in and running out of supplies, Napoleon retreated, coming under Russian attack. He returned with only 40,000 of the original 600,000.


How did Napoleon abdicate?

After Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia formed a coalition to fight France, Britain under the Duke of Wellington invaded France from Spain, while a combined Russian, Prussian, and Austrian army invaded France from the east, forcing Napoleon to abdicate when they reached Paris.


How was the French government structured after Napoleon?

The allies demanded the restoration of the Bourbon monarchs and brought Louis XVIII to the throne (skipped Louis XVII for some reason). Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba.


What was the Congress of Vienna?

It was the meeting of the four great powers from the Napoleonic Wars, Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria, to discuss the state of Europe following the Napoleonic Wars and make sure no state became too dominant.


What happened in the Congress of Vienna?

The Austrian Chancellor, Metternich, wanted to make sure that ideas from the French Revolution, such as liberalism and nationalism, would not occur in redrawn Europe. Poland was given to Russia, the Kingdom of the Netherlands was created, Piedmont was given to Genoa, and Prussia was given important Rhine territories. France received generous peace terms.


What occurred during the return of Napoleon?

After the Bourbon rulers unleashed the white terror against Jacobins and Bonaparte supporters, Napoleon was reinstalled as Emperor and raised an army; this period was called the Hundred Days. At the Battle of Waterloo, the Duke of Wellington and Marshal Blucher of Prussia defeated Napoleon. Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena in the Atlantic and died in 1821.