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Flashcards in Overseas Empires Deck (13)

Why did Portugal have an advantage in early sea exploration?

Portugal's land is naturally not meant for agriculture. Additionally, Prince Henry the Navigator established a navigational school in Lisbon aimed at finding a route to India by going around Africa.


Who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope?

Bartholomew Dias


Who first reached the coast of India?

Vasco da Gama


What naval technology allowed Portugal to initially dominate trade in the Indian ocean?

They were the first to mount cannons on their ships and deployed their ships in squadrons rather than individually


Who discovered the Americas?

Christopher Columbus


Who was Ferdinand Magellan?

Hi crew circumnavigated the globe and proved that what Columbus landed on (the Americas) was its own continent.


Who conquered the Aztecs?

Hernan Cortes


Who conquered the Inca?

Francisco Pizarro


Why were the Europeans so successful in conquering the Americas?

The Europeans were largely immune to the deadly effects of smallpox, but the Americans were not. Many natives were wiped out by disease. Furthermore, Western technology, like guns, were far superior to the natives' weapons.


What were haciendas?

Haciendas were large plantations that exploited both the agricultural and mineral riches of the land.


What was the encomienda system?

It was a system of forced labor that compelled the natives to work on the haciendas.


Why was the encomienda system soon ineffective?

Too many natives were dying of disease and overwork at too rapid a pace.


How was this problem solved?

Europeans abducted countless Africans from Africa and brought to the New World, with many dying as a result of the inhumane conditions both on the overseas passage and the poor working conditions.