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What were factors that contributed to the goal of greater European cooperation?

The French wanted to keep an eye on its traditional rival, Germany. There was also a growing sense that economic rationalization and cooperation were needed to end wasteful competition and ease tensions between nations. Additionally, concern over the Soviet Union and the establishment of NATO aided the cause of European unity.


What was the first stage of the creation of a European Union?

It began with the establishment of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC), which handled the Marshall Plan money. The United States did not want to see the money revive unprofitable industries for national industries, and they insisted that the Europeans use the money cooperatively. It also started to lower tariffs and remove trade barriers.


When was the stage of development after the OEEC?

The next development was the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). It combined the steel and coal resources of its member states: France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. The architect of the ECSC, Robert Schuman, stated that this would make war between France and German impossible. The ECSC provided models that were important for the future of European unity, like a supranational assembly called the European Parliament, a court of justice, and direct income in the form of taxes.


What was the stage of development after the ECSC?

The original members of the ECSC signed the Treaty of Rome, establishing the European Economic Community (called the Common Market). The members of the EEC, joined by Britain, Ireland, and Denmark, lifted almost all trade restrictions among member states. The European Single Act provided for the free movement among member nations of capital, labor, and such services as banking and insurance.


What was the final stage of development in European unity?

The Maastricht Treaty of 1992 led to the establishment of a common currency called the euro, with the exception of Denmark, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. It introduced new areas where there was supposed to be increased cooperation, such as in defense, justice, and environmental affairs, and changing the name from EEC to the European Union (EU).


How has the European Union expanded over time?

The European Union has undergone a number of expansions, notably with nations that were formerly members of the Warsaw Pact or part of the Soviet Union, such as the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, etc.


What problems has the EU encountered?

Turkey's European Union bid has been controversial for a number of reasons. Some EU officials doubt that Turkey can meet economic targets required for membership, or they question Turkey's commitment to human rights. Some are also concerned about admitting a state with a large Muslim population. It also sought to write a European Constitution, but all EU members had to approve the constitution. After France voted no, the constitution has not proceeded.