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Flashcards in Revolutions of 1848 Deck (29)

What were the main themes of the Revolutions of 1848?

Widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership and an upsurge in nationalism motivated citizen demands for democratic government and liberal reforms. The 1840s were a terrible decade for agriculture, and many famines occurred, particularly in Ireland. After the Revolutions, most nation-states used military force to subdue all forms of liberalism and nationalism.


Did the revolution of 1830 bring significant change?

No, there was no major change in France. The wealthy bourgeoisie dominated the July Monarchy, while the workers who played the largest role in the revolution saw no improvement.


How did unrest develop against the government?

The incompetent chief minister Francoise Guizot made idiotic statements that angered the workers. While censorship rose and political meetings were banned, opponents of the governments met at "banquets" that were really political meetings.


How did the revolution occur?

After Guizot issued an order banning a banquet to honor George Washington, it began four days of revolution in the streets of Paris. Louis Phillipe forced the resignation of Guizot, but he too fled to England.


What were divisions in the French revolutionary movement?

The liberals and radicals in the revolution disagreed with each other, with liberals focusing on the expansion of suffrage. The radicals, lead by the socialist Louis Blanc, spoke of the need for social and economic change. Blanc's supporters forced the provisional government to set up national workshops for the unemployed.


How did the election of the new national assembly create a new revolt?

Outside of Paris, the nation was more conservative, and the national assembly was made primarily of moderate republicans. Anger over the election results lead to a workers' revolt in Paris, and the government did away with the national workshops.


What was the result of the termination of the workshops?

The termination of the workshops lead to the June Days, a class struggle on the streets of Paris. The June Days strengthened the hand of moderate republicans, which formed the Second Republic, headed by a president elected by a universal adult-male body of voters and who would not be responsible to the legislature.


What was the outcome of the presidential election?

Louis Napoleon won. He created a conservative government and during a constitutional crisis he assumed dictatorial powers. In 1852 he crowned himself Emperor Napoleon III.


How did revolution occur in Prussia?

Frederick William IV promised reform, but never delivered on his promises. When soldiers fired on protestors in the streets of Berlin, Frederick ordered the army out of the city and allowed for an election for a constituent assembly to make a new constitution. However, he called back the troops and the constituent assembly was dissolved.


What was the outcome of the revolution in Prussia?

The King drew up his own constitution. It allowed for freedom of the press and created a two-house legislature with universal male suffrage for the lower house, although this provision was watered down.


How did revolution occur in Austria?

After hearing of the revolution in France, nationalists tried to break free of the Austrian monarchy. Lajos Kossuth was a Hungarian nationalist and Czechs nationalists also called for autonomous statehood. Student protests occurred in Vienna who demanded freedom of the press, an end to censorship, and removal of Metternich.


How were the revolutions in Austria resolved?

The emperor put down revolts in Prague, Vienna, and Hungary, though he needed Russian help with Hungary.


What was the Frankfurt Parliament?

It was a concerted effort to establish a unified German state. Elected representatives from all German states gathered in Frankfurt to try and create Germany. However, it was hampered by political inexperience and conflicting aims. People disagreed as to whether it should be a monarchy or a republic.


What were the two sides on how to draw the boundaries of Germany?

The Grossedeutsch plan and the Kleindeutsch plan.


What was the Grossedeutsch plan?

It called for all German lands, including German sections of Austria and Bohemia, united under German rule.


What was the Kleindeutsch plan?

It called for a unified Germany to only include Prussia and smaller German states.


Which side won? What happened after the Frankfurt Parliament?

The Kleindeutsch plan won. The delegates offered the German Imperial throne to William IV of Prussia, but he declined.


What was the outcome of the Frankfurt Parliament?

It was a missed opportunity to unify Germany under a liberal parliament rather than a militaristic Prussian state, although the German liberals at Frankfurt were militaristic as they put down a revolt in Prussia's Polish territories.


What revolutions occurred in the Italian states?

Revolts in Sicility made Ferdinand II to grant a liberal constitution. Other revolts broke out and terrified monarchs granted charters. Even the pope granted a liberal constitution after the Papal states saw revolts. Revolts brok out in Austrian-dominated Lombardy and Venetia.


How did hostility to Austria materialize?

Italian liberals called for a war of unification, with Charles Albert from Sardinia taking up the banner of Italian nationalists and attacked Lombardy, but was easily defeated by the Austrians.


What was the outcome of the Italian revolutions?

A short-lived Roman Republic was created, but quickly fell apart.


What were the lessons that Italian states took away from the revolutions in 1848?

Unification could not take place under the auspice of the papacy. The Kingdom of Sardinia served as the foundation for a unified state because of its military power and its constitutional monarchy. The Italians could not eject Austria from its possessions within Italy without another European power's help.


What were the two nations that avoided the turmoil of the revolution in 1848?

Russia and Great Britain


How did Russia avoid revolution?

Repression in Russia was so great under Nicholas I that nothing occurred.


What was the movement that occurred in England during? What was the philosophy of the movement?

Chartism. Chartism believed that the problems of the working class could be corrected by changes in the political organization in the country.


What was the Chartist movement based on? What were the six points in that document?

It was based on the People's Charter of 1838. It called for universal male suffrage, the secret ballot, abolition of property requirements for Members of Parliament, payment to Members of Parliament, equal electoral districts, and annual parliaments with yearly elections.


How did tensions escalate during the Chartist movement?

A mass meeting was scheduled in London for the presentation of the Charter to the House of Commons. If the petition was rejected by Parliament, the Chartists threatened to create a National Assembly that would take over the government of the country.


How did the tensions resolve?

Over 200,000 people signed the petition, which was presented to the House of Commons, and everyone went home peacefully, although the House of Commons refused to debate the clauses in the petition.


Did reform ever occur?

Reform came eventually in incremental stages, and five of the sixth acts of the Charter were established as part of the British Constitution.