Flashcards in The Age of National Unification Deck (68)
Why was the Crimean War important to the formation of states?
The Crimean War ultimately proved essential to the formation of centralized states in Italy and Germany.
What led to the outbreak of hostilities?
There was controversy over which nation would control access to the religious sites sacred to Christians in Jerusalem. The primary reason was fear among the British and French statesmen that Ottoman weakness was encouraging Russian adventurism in the Balkans and that Russia might occupy Istanbul.
What occurred during the Crimean War?
After the Ottomans defeated the Russians at sea, France and Britain declared war on Russia. Most of the fighting took place in the Crimean reason and inspired Florence Nightingale to revolutionize the nursing profession. It ended with the fall of the Russian fortress of Sevastopol; the Russians were forced to surrender when Austria threatened to enter the war on the side of the British and French.
What were the peace terms of the Crimean War? How were they a blow to Russian ambitions?
Russia ceded territories on the Danube River and could not have warships in the Black Sea region. It was a blow to Russia because they did not have a warm-water port and were therefore confined to the Baltic Sea.
What were the ultimate consequences of the Crimean War?
The concept of the Concert of Europe, an idea formed at the Congress of Vienna wherein the great powers of France, Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia would work together, was shattered as the Crimean War became the first war since the Napoleonic era.
How did the war change relations between the great powers?
Austria and Russia had previously worked together to resist the trend towards nation-building. Because Austria refused to side with Russians during the war, it received no support from Russia when Prussia and Italy began building nations. France also found itself confronting Prussia with no help from Britain because Britain became more isolationist.
Who did Italian nationalists want to lead the unified Italian state?
Italian nationalists wanted the papacy to lead the centralized Italian state. However, after the restoration of the papacy's power, Pope Pius IX pursued reactionary policies, which made liberals disenchanted of a federation of states headed by the pope.
Who did Italian liberals and nationalists turn to to lead the unified state?
They turned to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, which had a liberal constitution.
What is Italian unification called?
Who was the architect of Italian unification? How was he different from previous nationalists?
Count Camillo di Cavour. He was different from Guiseppe Mazzini, who viewed state-building in romanticized terms, in that he was more practical.
How did lessons from the revolutions of 1848 tell Cavour what to do to rid Italy of Austria? How did he do so?
Cavour knew he had to receive foreign assistance if he wanted to push back Austria. He entered into an alliance with Napoleon III of France, the basis of which was established by aiding the French during the Crimean War.
How did the war begin?
The combined French and Sardinian forces dealt the Austrians, but they were not entirely pushed out of Italy because Napoleon III was afraid of Prussian support for Austria.
Did Napoleon III want all of Italy united?
No, he wanted only northern Italy to unite. He feared that a large Italian state would be a danger to France.
What occurred as a result of the war with Austria?
In Austria-dominated regions throughout Italy like Tuscany, Parma, and Modena revolted to join with Sardinia.
Who was Giuseppe Garibaldi?
He was another romantic Italian nationalism who had at one point been a member of Mazzini's Young Italy movement.
What did Garibaldi do?
He invaded Sicily with his 1000 red shirts and conquered the southern Italian kingdom and eventually Naples.
How did Cavour react to Garibaldi's conquest of Sicily and Naples?
He was horrified to think that Garibaldi might seek to unify Italy instead of Piedmont. He rushed troops to Naples to block Garibaldi's march, and while he moved southwards occupied the papal states.
Who was declared king of Italy?
Victor Emmanuel of Piedmont.
When did Italy receive Venice? When did they receive Rome?
Italy received Venice in 1866 after Austria was defeated by Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War. They received Rome in 1870 following he withdrawal of French troops from Rome as a result of the Franco-Prussian War.
What was unified Italy like?
It was plagued by corruption and bribery. Romantic nationalists saw the new Italy as a cold bureaucratic state. There was an economic divide between the industrialized north and the economically backward south. The Catholic Church was also hostile to the new state.
How did German unification have implications for the rest of Europe?
It created a large state with great military and economic strength. It was also hostile to France for its defeat during the Napoleonic wars.
How did German nationalism occur?
Napoleon's domination of large parts of Germany not only increased the demand among German patriots for the creation but also reduced the number of independent German states, which eventually aided the process of unification.
What were the two dominant states within the German Confederation?
Prussia and Austria
How and where was German unification delayed?
The Frankfurt Parliament looked as if a unified Germany was to be established, but Frederick William IV of Prussia rejected the crown.
How did Prussia have advantages over Austria in unifying Germany?
Prussia through the creation of the Zollverein had achieved economic preeminence over the other member states, while Austria was excluded from the Zollverein. By the mid 19th century, Prussia had seen a degree of industrialization, while Austria was largely agricultural. Prussia was a primarily German state, while Austria was made of many nationalities. Prussia also had Otto von Bismarck.
Who was Otto von Bismarck?
He was a conservative Junker who was an extreme nationalist, willing to do anything to advance the idea of a unified Germany.
What did Bismarck say in his "Blood and Iron" speech? What was he trying to do?
He said that Germany had to be united by Prussia using blood and Iron. He was trying to get parliamentary support for increasing the size of the Prussian Army.
What was the Danish War?
It occurred when Denmark occupied Schleswig and Holstein, and an alliance between Prussia and Austria crushed the Danes. Schleswig came under Prussian control while Holstein was run by the Austrians in order to generate conflict between Prussia and Austria.
How did Bismarck prepare for war with Austria? How did it begin?
He secured an alliance with Italy and signed a non-agression pact with the French. He used a dispute over the governance of Holstein as the basis for attack.
What occurred during the Austro-Prussian War?
The modernization of the Prussian army made it easy for the Prussians to handily defeat the Austrians in seven weeks.
What were the ending terms of the war?
Austria was treated with respect, but was forced to give Venice to the Italians. The small German states that supported Austria were annexed by Prussia. Other northern German states joined Prussia in the creation of the North German Confederation, while southern Germany entered in an alliance with Prussia in fear of the French.
How did Bismarck set up the Franco-Prussian War?
A Hohenzollern was invited to take the vacant throne of Spain, and Napoleon III tried to get William I to withdraw his cousin's name. Bismarck modified the telegram, called the Ems dispatch, which made it seem as though William I insulted France. Napoleon III then declared war on Prussia.
What occurred during the Franco-Prussian War?
The Prussians soundly defeated the French at the battle of Sedan. Bismarck quickly advanced into France following the siege of Metz. Bismarck also convinced the other German states to accept the creation of a German state under Prussian leadership.
What treaty ended the Franco-Prussian War? What was its terms?
The Treaty of Frankfurt ended the war. It created the unified German state, and it forced France to cede Alsace-Lorraine to the Germans.
What were the effects of the creation of the German Empire?
The new German state created a bitter enemy of France, who lost Alsace-Lorraine and had to pay war indemnity. The economic power of the German state created tensions with Great Britain and set in motion the rush to build colonial empires. The mad scramble began when Bismarck suggested France build an empire in Africa to distract from its war losses. Eventually, all nations of Europe sought to create overseas empires as a means to further their political and economic interests within a Europe that was trying to adjust to the tensions that arose from the development of a powerful German state.
Was the new Germany stable?
Not necessarily. Its military commanders had large influence over the nation. Bismarck also attacked Catholics and Socialists, who he thought posed a threat to the internal cohesion of the Reich.
What was Kulturkampf?
Fearful that Catholics were more loyal to the Church than Germany, Bismarck attacked the Catholic Church. He insisted on controlling all church appointments and gained complete supervision over Catholic education, but he stopped these policies due to Catholic resentment.
How did Bismarck attempt to suppress the Socialists?
Bismarck tried to ban the Socialists' right to assemble and publish materials. He tried to limit the appeal of the Socialists by establishing pensions and other social benefits; however, Bismarck found that oppressing the Social Democratic Party increased its appeal.
What was Bismarck's ultimate effect on Europe?
Bismarck sought to establish the glory of Germany at all costs despite wanting peace. He established Germany and Prussia as conservative, aristocratic states. However, his conflict with Wilhelm II led to less able statesmen taking his place, jeopardizing his peace with Russia and sacrificed German stability for German glory.
What were conditions in France like at the start of Napoleon III's reign?
France initially prospered. Cheap credit provided by the government allowed for economic expansion.
Who redesigned Paris? Why was it redesigned?
Georges Haussmann. Napoleon III was concerned about the narrow streets that allowed for the development of the barricades. It also cleared many of the slums in the city, created wied avenues, and improved sewers and aqueducts to eliminate cholera.
How was Napoleon III repressive?
He censored critics and pursued an authoritarian regime.
What concessions did Napoleon III make in 1860? Why?
He eased censorship and liberalized the press and government. He did this as a result of the unpopularity of the Crimean and Italian Wars.
What did Napoleon III try to do in 1859?
He tried to create a "liberal empire", making his state a constitutional monarchy. However, the experiment soon died, as Napoleon was captured in the Franco-Prussian War and exiled to England.
What was created after the collapse of the Second Empire?
France created the Third Republic.
What was the immediate problem the Third Republic had to deal with?
They had to put down a revolt in Paris that became the Paris Commune, a radical government created out of the anarchy of the Franco-Prussian War.
What was the structure of the Third Republic?
It consisted of a two-house parliamentary body, with a chamber of deputies, elected by a universal male pool of voters and a senate chosen by indirect elections. The president was relatively weak, responsible to the chamber of deputies.
What was the Third Republic's greatest challenge?
In 1889, a coup d'etat threatened to begin under General Boulanger. The Boulanger Affair weakened the monarchist movement.
What were some of the tensions present in the Third Republic? Did these prevail?
Tensions between the state and the Catholic Church and anti-Semitism were significant problems during the Third Republic, but it proved to be the most durable of all the French Republics.
What were social and political conditions in England?
Great Britain enjoyed remarkable stability and prosperity in the second half of the nineteenth century.
What was the Great Exhibition of 1851? Where was it held?
It had more than 13,000 exhibitors displaying the variety of British goods that were now available as a result of industrialization. It was held in the Crystal Palace, which was emblematic the current trends in the Great Britain.
What was the first step in expanding the franchise?
The Great Reform Bill of 1832 modestly extended the franchise in Great Britain.
Who were the most important prime ministers of the nineteenth century in Great Britain? What parties did they belong to?
Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone. Disraeli was the leader of the Conservative party, while Gladstone was the leader of the Liberal party.
How was the franchise expanded in Britain?
Disraeli passed the Second Reform Bill, which extended the franchise to the urban heads of households. Under Gladstone, it was expanded to include rural heads of households.
What characterized Queen Victoria's rule?
Victoria's reign was characterized by the weakening of the powers of the monarchy while the establishment of a political system dominated by two parties, in this case the Conservatives and the Liberals.
What was the effect of the Crimean War in detailing problems in Russian society?
The poor showing in the Crimean war revealed the backwardness of Russian society in comparison to the rest of Europe.
Who ended serfdom? Was it effective?
Alexander II ended serfdom. However, the made the serfs buy back their freedom with payments over fifty years. Peasants were given poor land by their previous owners, which meant harsh life for agricultural laborers.
What were new methods of local government introduced by Alexander II?
Alexander introduced zemstvos, or district assemblies, that hand mandates to deal with local issues such as education and social services.
Were zemstvos liberal?
They were dominated by the local gentry and were not bastions of democracy.
What were other reforms Alexander undertook?
He reformed the legal system, although at his heart he remained an autocrat and did not want to implement a constitution.
What was the result of his lack of willingness to reform?
It led to the development of revolutionary organizations like the People's Will, who later assassinated Alexander II. The succession of his son Alexander III brought about a new round of repression and attempted to weaken Alexander II's modest reforms.
What the was the Austrian Empire's experience in the nineteenth century?
It was a multinational empire in an age of growing nationalist sentiment. By 1866, the Habsburgs had lost all their territories in Italy, and their defeat by the Prussians made them irrelevant in German affairs.
What structural change occurred in 1867?
In 1867, the Habsburgs signed an agreement with the Magyars in Hungary creating a dual Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Each state was independent but united under the mutual leadership of Francis Joseph.
What were the effects of this agreement?
The Magyars did their best to ensure the Croats, Serbs, Romanians, and other nationalists located within Hungary were denied any form of self-rule. Austria-Hungary also tried to become more influential in the Balkans region.
How did the Ottoman Empire modernize?
Sultan Abdul Mejid implemented the Tanzimat reforms, which was an attempt to adopt Western customs, overhaul the Ottoman economy, and introduce notions such as equality before the law and freedom of religion.
Who were the Young Turks?
They were a group of liberal intellectuals who pushed for the establishment of the Ottoman Empire as a constitutional monarchy.
Who was Sultan Abdul Hamid II?
He was a brutal monarch who scrapped the constitution in order to subjugate non-Muslims. He killed thousands of Armenians (though not the genocide yet) and instituted general repression, although the Young Turks pushed for a measure of constitutional rule.