Motivation and Hunger (Unit 9) Flashcards

1
Q

A psychological process that initiates, sustains, directs, and terminates actions:

A

Motivation

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2
Q

Three types of motivation:

A
  1. Biological/Primary Motive
  2. Stimulus
  3. Learned
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3
Q

Based on biological needs for survival:

A

Biological Motive

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4
Q

Our need for information, learning, and stimulation:

A

Stimulus Motivation

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5
Q

Learned needs, drives, goals:

A

Learned Motivation

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6
Q

_____ or _____ motivation:

A

Extrinsic; Intrinsic

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7
Q

Hopelesness or passive resignation that is learned when unable to avoid repeated aversive event:

A

Learned Helplessness

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8
Q

Tendency to do things that contribute to failure then use these things as excuses for failure in performance, activities, or achieving goals:

A

Self-Handicapping Behaviors

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9
Q

The complex, inherited behavior patterns characteristic of a species:

A

Instinct

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10
Q

Behaviors in response to stimuli that once started, continue until completion:

A

Fixed Action Patterns

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11
Q

Natural selection passes on favorable characteristics:

A

Charles Darwin

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12
Q

Said instincts motivate sex and aggression:

A

Sigmund Freud

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13
Q

Ethologist who studied baby geese, came up with “imprinting”:

A

Konrad Lorenz

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14
Q

The attachment created with the first thing a newborn sees/feels after birth:

A

Imprinting

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15
Q

Lack of some biological essential:

A

Need

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16
Q

Energized emotional state that pushes a person to do something:

A

DRive

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17
Q

All need-drive behavioral explanations follow a ______ _______:

A

Familiar pattern

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18
Q

Drive Reduction Theory by:

A

Clark Hull

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19
Q

Need: _____
Drive: ______
Response/Behavior: ______
Goal: ____

A
  1. Hunger
  2. Push to eat
  3. Find food
  4. Satisfied/Homeostasis
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20
Q

Return to a state of homeostasis:

A

Goal

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21
Q

Actual behaviors that reduce the drive may be ______:

A

Learned

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22
Q

Incentive Theory by:

A

Kenneth Spence

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23
Q

Incentive Theory: ______ motivation: A ________ or _______ environmental stimulus that motivates behavior, pulling us towards a goal:

A

External; positive; negative

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24
Q

Proposes that people/animals are motivated to perform because they are trying to maintain optimal levels of physiological arousal:

A

Optimal Arousal Theory

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25
Q

People are motivated to behave so that they stay _______ aroused all the time:

A

Moderately

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26
Q

We perform most activities best when we are moderately aroused:

A

Yerkes-Dodson Law

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27
Q

When our arousal is ____, performance suffers (uninterested, inattentive):

A

Low

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28
Q

When our arousal is _____ our performance suffers (anxious, overwhelmed)

A

High

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29
Q

A difficult task is better completed with a ____ level of arousal:

A

Low

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30
Q

An easy task is better completed with a ____ level of arousal:

A

High

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31
Q

Self-Actualization Theory by:

A

Abraham Maslow

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32
Q

Listed our priorities into a pyramid to provide a framework for thinking about motivation:

A

Self-Actualization Theory

33
Q

1 on Pyramid:

A

Physiological Needs

34
Q

2 on Pyramid:

A

Safety Needs

35
Q

3 on Pyramid:

A

Belongingness and Love Needs

36
Q

4 on Pyramid:

A

Esteem Needs

37
Q

5 on Pyramid:

A

Self-Actualization Needs

38
Q

The Self-Actualization Theory is not _______ fixed:

A

Universally

39
Q

Who studied effects of lesions on the hypothalamus:

A

Olds and Milner

40
Q

What is the “pleasure center” for motives like eating, drining, and sex?

A

The hypothalamus

41
Q

Lateral (sides of) hypothalamus ____ behavior:

A

Excites

42
Q

Ventromedial (lower middle) hypothalamus ____ behavior:

A

Inhibits

43
Q

Glucose is a form of ____ that comes from food and circulates in the blood and provides a major source of ____:

A

Sugar; energy

44
Q

A hormone released by the pancreas and must be present for cells to use glucose. It regulates the level of glucose in the blood:

A

Insulin

45
Q

High insulin + low blood glucose =

A

Hunger

46
Q

Levels are monitored by neurons in the ____, liver, and intestines; they send signals to the brain

A

Stomach

47
Q

Low glucose in the blood which will increase body temp, heart rate and cause shakiness, childs, and irritable mood:

A

Hypoglycemic

48
Q

Glucose stays in blood and can’t move to cells:

A

Diabetes

49
Q

Genetic; Can produce enough insulin:

A

Type 1 Diabetes

50
Q

Body unable to use insulin (90% of population):

A

Type 2 Diabetes

51
Q

Key control center for motivated behavior:

A

Hypothalamus

52
Q

Sides of hypothalamus that trigger hunger:

A

Later

53
Q

Sides of hypothalamus that trigger hunger:

A

Lateral Hypothalamus

54
Q

Reduction of blood glucose stimulates _____ _____ in the lateral hypothalamus which leads one to eat ravenously:

A

Orexin Production

55
Q

A hormone released in the stomach when you need to eat. It carries the hunger singla to the LH:

A

Ghrelin

56
Q

The lower middle part that regulates fullness:

A

Ventromedial Hypothalamus

57
Q

This receives information from satiety hormones Leptin and PYY:

A

Ventromedial Hypothalamus

58
Q

This is secreted by fat cells and reaches the VH to stop:

A

Leptin

59
Q

People with _____ leptin levels overeat, which can lead to obesity:

A

Low

60
Q

Orexin increases and hunger _____:

A

Increases

61
Q

Ghrelin increases and hunger _____:

A

Increases

62
Q

Insulin increases and hunger ______:

A

Increases

63
Q

Leptin increases and hunger _____:

A

Decreases

64
Q

PYY increases and hunger ____:

A

Decreases

65
Q

The part of the hypothalamus that regulates eating behavior due to stimulation/inhibition of neurotransmitters:

A

Paraventricular Nucleus

66
Q

_____ can lead to a sugar high:

A

Carbs

67
Q

______ increases desire for cards:

A

Epinephrine

68
Q

Some foods trigger the release of ____, leading to a feeling of pleasure:

A

Serotonin

69
Q

Weight range in which the body performs optimally and the person stays without any effect:

A

Set Point

70
Q

Set point is influenced by the person’s _____ __________ ____:

A

Basil Metabolic Rate

71
Q

______ influeces eating:

A

Learning

72
Q

Food is associated with ________:

A

Environments

73
Q

____ motivates eating behaviors; other tastes are _____:

A

Culture; Conditioned

74
Q

Life threatening disorder that involves intense fear of weight gain, distorted perception of weight/body shape, and persistent restriction of caloric intake leading to extreme weight loss and damage to physical health:

A

Anorexia Nervosa

75
Q

Anorexia usually develops in ________; more ____ (1 out of 10):

A

Adolescence; Females

76
Q

Marked by repeated episodes of secretive binging followed by purging:

A

Bulimia Nervosa

77
Q

_____ of those with anorexia also display binge-purge depression symptoms of bulimia:

A

Half

78
Q

A disorder characterizd by being excessively overweight:

A

Obesity

79
Q

Obesity can be genetic, with a link to:

A

Chromosome 15