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Flashcards in Muscles Deck (80):
1

How many muscle groups are there?

600

2

What type of pairs are muscles grouped into?

antagonistic pairs

3

What is the meaning of antagonistic pairs?

One muscle moves in one direction and the other in another direction.

4

What part of the muscle is stationary and attached to the bone?

Origin

5

What part of the muscle attaches to the bone across a joint

Insertion

6

Where are the origins and insertions of muscles?

On opposing ends of a muscle

7

The origin is closer to what area of the body compared to the insertion?

the body midline

8

What happens to the insertion and origin in contraction?

The insertion gets pulled toward the origin

9

Another word for "single muscle" is...

Whole muscle

10

Word for muscle bundle

Fascicle

11

The Fascicle is surrounded by...

Fascia

12

An elastic type substance that surrounds and individuates all of the fascicles

Fascia

13

Fascia and fascicles all come together to form....

Tendon

14

Another word for muscle cell

muscle fibre

15

Muscle cells contain long cylindrical structures called:

myofibrils

16

How many nuclei do muscle cells have?

thousands (multi nucleate)

17

What kind of element is a part of a myofibril?

contractile

18

What does it mean when it's said that muscle is striated?

The alternating pattern of dark and light bands on muscle

19

The area between the striations on muscle is...

the contractile portion of muscle

20

The unit of contraction of muscles is referred to as a...

sarcomere

21

The dark lines that define the borders of a sarcomere are called..

Z lines

22

The two types of protein filaments in sarcomeres are called

Actin and Myosin

23

The darker portion of the sarcomere with mostly myosin is called

A band

24

Dense protein section of sarcomere with overlapping actin

A band

25

What is the H zone?

the small strop in between where actin extends t where ther is no actin, just myosin

26

What is the M line?

defines the centre portion of the sarcomere

27

the lighter portion of the sarcomere with Actin and contacts z line

I band

28

Muscle contraction results from ...

slight shortening of each sarcomere

29

Activation of skeletal muscle depends on what type of activation?

neural

30

Name of junction where nervous system communicates with the muscles

neuromuscular junction

31

What neurotransmitter do muscles release?

ACH (acetylcholine)

32

the neurtransmitter that acts on muscles to start contraction process

ACH

33

Motor neurons release ACh leads to waves of electrical activity, called:

depolarization

34

When depolarization spreads deeper into the muscle, what does it travel through?

T tubules

35

All electrical activity in muscles has the effect of releasing what from the sarcoplasmic reticulum?

calcium

36

The calcium store house in the muscle

sarcoplasmic reticulum

37

the presence of calcium being released from muscles causes interaction of...

actin and myosin fibres

38

What is the sliding filament mechanism?

when actin and myosin slide closer to eachother

39

When are myosin heads attached to the actin?

when activated into power stroke

40

What does the power stroke do?

pulls myosin toward the centre of the sarcomere

41

The actin have rope-like structures across the surface which have two different names:

Troponin and tropomyosin

42

the shape of troponin is

discs

43

the shape of tropomyosin is...

rope

44

What do troponin and tropomyosin do?

They block the myosin heads from binding to the sites on the actin when calcium is not present

45

For muscle relaxation, ATP is needed for...

Ca2+ transport into the sacroplasmic reticulum and to bind to myosin to get it to detach from actin

46

The energy require for muscle contraction is required to do what?

to reset the process of binding

47

the cycle of contractile process shows what?

how energy goes into the system

48

Simple 4 step process of contractile cycle

1. ATP binding on the myosin head to release
2. Conversion to ADP
3. Reset of myosin head
4. Ready for another power stroke

49

Why do dead bodies become rigid?

because the organism has stopped making ATP, meaning myosin heads can't unbind from actin

50

free floating ATP in muscle cells allows for how many seconds of contraction?

10 seconds

51

Creatine phosphate allows how many seconds of contraciton?

30-40 seconds

52

Creatine phosphase can transfer a phosphate group to ...

ADP

53

Energy from glucose can produce...

ATP

54

Using stored glycogen for muscle energy consumption depends on the presence of what?

oxygen

55

The burning sensation from lifting a heavy load is from...

the production of lactic acid

56

Long term solution to muscle energy consumption is...

aerobic metabolism

57

the delay after activity has ceased where heart rate and breathg remains elevated for a periof of time to replenish all of ATP stores

Oxygen debt

58

What is muscle fatigue?

not being able to continue intense activity, which is a result of decreased ATP

59

Type of muscle that contracts and breaks down ATP slowly

slow twitch

60

Type of muscle that will produce ATP as needed

slow twitch

61

type of muscle with a red appearance from many mitochondria

slow twitch

62

Slow twitch muscles have a high concentration of...

myoglobin

63

the type of muscles that are involved in standing posture

slow twitch

64

types of muscles that contract and break down ATP quickly

Fast twitch

65

Fast twitch muscles have large amounts of...

glycogen and creatine phosphate

66

What types of muscles use more anaerobic forms of metabolism?

fast twitch

67

What type of muscles to runners typically have higher amounts of?

slow twitch

68

What type of muscles do weight lifters typically have more of?

fast twitch

69

Muscle soreness comes from

damaged sacromeres that produce inflammation and swelling

70

the type of muscle growth that comes from weight training

hypertrophy

71

the type of muscle growth that comes from endurance training

hyperplasia

72

hypertrophy increases the size of...

muscles

73

hyperplasia increases the number of...

cells in muscles

74

Aerobic training increases...

blood flow, mitochondria and efficiency of O2 transfer during respiration

75

Muscular dystrophy is the genetic deficit of...

dystrophin

76

What is dystrophin important for?

the removal of Ca2+

77

Excess Ca2+ in cells can cause...

damage and death

78

the life expectancy of people with muscular dystrophy is...

~30 years

79

Another word for tetanus disorder

lockjaw

80

What is tetanus?

a bacterial inflection the causes constant activation of muscles