Flashcards in Muscles Deck (80):
How many muscle groups are there?
What type of pairs are muscles grouped into?
What is the meaning of antagonistic pairs?
One muscle moves in one direction and the other in another direction.
What part of the muscle is stationary and attached to the bone?
What part of the muscle attaches to the bone across a joint
Where are the origins and insertions of muscles?
On opposing ends of a muscle
The origin is closer to what area of the body compared to the insertion?
the body midline
What happens to the insertion and origin in contraction?
The insertion gets pulled toward the origin
Another word for "single muscle" is...
Word for muscle bundle
The Fascicle is surrounded by...
An elastic type substance that surrounds and individuates all of the fascicles
Fascia and fascicles all come together to form....
Another word for muscle cell
Muscle cells contain long cylindrical structures called:
How many nuclei do muscle cells have?
thousands (multi nucleate)
What kind of element is a part of a myofibril?
What does it mean when it's said that muscle is striated?
The alternating pattern of dark and light bands on muscle
The area between the striations on muscle is...
the contractile portion of muscle
The unit of contraction of muscles is referred to as a...
The dark lines that define the borders of a sarcomere are called..
The two types of protein filaments in sarcomeres are called
Actin and Myosin
The darker portion of the sarcomere with mostly myosin is called
Dense protein section of sarcomere with overlapping actin
What is the H zone?
the small strop in between where actin extends t where ther is no actin, just myosin
What is the M line?
defines the centre portion of the sarcomere
the lighter portion of the sarcomere with Actin and contacts z line
Muscle contraction results from ...
slight shortening of each sarcomere
Activation of skeletal muscle depends on what type of activation?
Name of junction where nervous system communicates with the muscles
What neurotransmitter do muscles release?
the neurtransmitter that acts on muscles to start contraction process
Motor neurons release ACh leads to waves of electrical activity, called:
When depolarization spreads deeper into the muscle, what does it travel through?
All electrical activity in muscles has the effect of releasing what from the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
The calcium store house in the muscle
the presence of calcium being released from muscles causes interaction of...
actin and myosin fibres
What is the sliding filament mechanism?
when actin and myosin slide closer to eachother
When are myosin heads attached to the actin?
when activated into power stroke
What does the power stroke do?
pulls myosin toward the centre of the sarcomere
The actin have rope-like structures across the surface which have two different names:
Troponin and tropomyosin
the shape of troponin is
the shape of tropomyosin is...
What do troponin and tropomyosin do?
They block the myosin heads from binding to the sites on the actin when calcium is not present
For muscle relaxation, ATP is needed for...
Ca2+ transport into the sacroplasmic reticulum and to bind to myosin to get it to detach from actin
The energy require for muscle contraction is required to do what?
to reset the process of binding
the cycle of contractile process shows what?
how energy goes into the system
Simple 4 step process of contractile cycle
1. ATP binding on the myosin head to release
2. Conversion to ADP
3. Reset of myosin head
4. Ready for another power stroke
Why do dead bodies become rigid?
because the organism has stopped making ATP, meaning myosin heads can't unbind from actin
free floating ATP in muscle cells allows for how many seconds of contraction?
Creatine phosphate allows how many seconds of contraciton?
Creatine phosphase can transfer a phosphate group to ...
Energy from glucose can produce...
Using stored glycogen for muscle energy consumption depends on the presence of what?
The burning sensation from lifting a heavy load is from...
the production of lactic acid
Long term solution to muscle energy consumption is...
the delay after activity has ceased where heart rate and breathg remains elevated for a periof of time to replenish all of ATP stores
What is muscle fatigue?
not being able to continue intense activity, which is a result of decreased ATP
Type of muscle that contracts and breaks down ATP slowly
Type of muscle that will produce ATP as needed
type of muscle with a red appearance from many mitochondria
Slow twitch muscles have a high concentration of...
the type of muscles that are involved in standing posture
types of muscles that contract and break down ATP quickly
Fast twitch muscles have large amounts of...
glycogen and creatine phosphate
What types of muscles use more anaerobic forms of metabolism?
What type of muscles to runners typically have higher amounts of?
What type of muscles do weight lifters typically have more of?
Muscle soreness comes from
damaged sacromeres that produce inflammation and swelling
the type of muscle growth that comes from weight training
the type of muscle growth that comes from endurance training
hypertrophy increases the size of...
hyperplasia increases the number of...
cells in muscles
Aerobic training increases...
blood flow, mitochondria and efficiency of O2 transfer during respiration
Muscular dystrophy is the genetic deficit of...
What is dystrophin important for?
the removal of Ca2+
Excess Ca2+ in cells can cause...
damage and death
the life expectancy of people with muscular dystrophy is...
Another word for tetanus disorder