Muscles of Back and Vertebral Column Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Muscles of Back and Vertebral Column > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscles of Back and Vertebral Column Deck (42):
1

Regions of Vertebral Column

  1. Cervical (7)
  2. Thoracic (12)
  3. Lumbar (5)
  4. Sacral (5)
  5. Coccygeal (4)

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Functions of Vertebral Column

  1. Support body weight
  2. Posture and Locomotion
  3. rigid/flexible body axis
  4. protect spinal cord and spinal nerves

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Numbers of each of spinal nerves

8 cervical

12 thoracic

5 lumbar

5 sacral

1 coccygeal

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Where do spinal nerves arise from?

Ventral and Dorsal Roots

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Ventral Root Function

convey motor (efferent) fibers FROM spinal cord

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Dorsal Root Function

convey afferent (sensory) fibers TO spinal cord

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Spinal nerve precursor and post-cursor

  1. Dorsal/ventral root
  2. spinal nerve
  3. dorsal/ventral rami

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Innervations of dorsal ramus 

1) true back muscles

2) synovial joints of vertebral column

3) overlying skin

9

Innervations of Ventral ramus

upper and lower extremities of anterio-lateral body wall

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Curvatures of Vertebral Column

1. Cervical

2. Thoracic 

3. Lumbar

4. Sacral

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Primary curvatures

1) Thoracic

2) Sacral

  • curves are in same direction as fetal column

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Reason for primary curvature direction

difference between posterior and anterior parts of vertebrate

13

Secondary curvatures 

1) Cervical

2) Lumbar

  • curve is opposite to direction in fetal column

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How Cervical curvature arises

when infant holds its head erect

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How Lumbar curvature arises

when infant begins to walk

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Reason for secondary curvature direction

height difference between posterior and anterior intervertebral discs

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Kyphosis

accentuated thoracic curvature

18

Lordosis

accentuated Lumbar curvature

19

Scoliosis 

  • Lateral curvature
  • rotation of vertebrae

20

Joints of vertebral column

  1. intervertebral discs
  2. facet (zygapophysial) joints

21

IV Discs characteristics 

  • cartilaginous
  • designed for weight bearing and strength

22

Anatomy of intervertebral disc

  • Annulus fibrosus - inner conentric fibrocartilage layers adhering to vertebral bodies
  • Nucleus Pulposus -  outer shock absorber; high water content
  • water content subject to pressure applies

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Function of facet joints

  • small amount gliding between adjacent vertebrae
  • collectively large amount motion

24

Things that influence movements of vertebral column

  1. tension of joint 
  2. IV disc compressibility
  3. resistance of surrounding muscles/ligaments
  4. shape/orientation of facet joints

25

Ligaments of vertebral column

  1. Ligamentum flavum
  2. Supraspinous ligament
  3. Interspinous ligament
  4. Intertransverse ligament
  5. Anterior longitudinal ligament
  6. Posterior longitudinal ligament

 

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Anterior longitudinal ligament

  • unites anterior surfaces of vertebral bodies
  • prevents hyperextension

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Posterior longitudinal ligament

  • unites posterior surface  of vertebral body
  • located on inside of vertebral canal

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Supraspinous ligament

connects spinous process from sacrum to C7

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Ligamentum Nuchae

  • neck ligament
  • attachment for cervical muslces

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Interspinous ligament

join adjacent spinous processes

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Intertransverse Ligament

join adjacent transverse processes

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Ligamentum Flavum

  • join adjacent lamina of vertebrae
  • prevent hyperflexion

33

Superficial back muscles

  1. Trapezius
  2. Latissimus Dorsi
  3. Levator Scapulae

 

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Latissimus Dorsi

Origin: Spinous process of 6 thoracic vertebrae, throacolumbar fascia, iliac crest

Insertion: intertubercular sulcus of humerus

Action: extends, adducts, medially rotates humerus

Innervation: thoracodorsal nerve

35

Trapezius 

Origin: External occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, spinous process of C7-T12

Insertion: lateral 1/3 clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula

Action: Elevates, rotates, retracts scapula (shurgs)

Innervation:

motor - spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)

sensory- C30C4

 

36

Intermeida Muscles of Back

  1. Serratus Posterior inferior
  2. Serratus posterior superior

 

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Deep back muscles

  1. Splenius (superficial)
  2. Erector Spinae Complex (intermediate)
  3. Transversospinalis complex (deep)

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What are all deep back muscles innervated by?

Dorsal rami of spinal nerves

39

Splenius Muscles

  1. Splenius Capitis and cervicis

Action: neck extension and ipsilaterall rotation

Innervation: dorsal rami

Covers suboccipital triangle

 

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Erector Spinae Complex

  1. Iliocostalis 
  2. Longissimus
  3. Spinalis

Action: Spine extension, lateral flexion, controlled forward flexion

 

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Transversospinalis 

  1. Semispinalis
  2. Multifidus
  3. Rotatores

Action: Posture, rotation, proprioception

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