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Flashcards in Superficial Neck Deck (33):
1

Cranial Nerves that carry parasympathetic fibers

III

VII

IX

X

2

Foramens in Cervical Vertebrae

  1. Vertebral foramen (spinal cord)
  2. Transverse foramen (vertebral artery)

3

Vertebral artery 

  • Vascularizes spinal cord and brain
  • branch of subclavian artery
  • enters foramen magnum at atlas


 

4

Atlanto Occipital Joint

  • Condyloid Synovial joint
  • between superior articular facet of atlas and occipital condyle 
  • ****allows "yes" movement 
  • Jefferson Fracture - compression in cervical region 

5

Atlanto-Axial Joint

  • "No" movment
  • 3 Synovial joints:
    • (1) between Dens and Anterior arch - Pivot 
    • (2) between opposing articulations - gliding joint
  • Hangman's Fractures - quadraplegia if spinal cord injured 

6

Larynx

  • Phonating mechanism 
  • gaurds and maintains patent airway
  • between C4-C6

7

3 Cartilages of Larynx (cranial to caudal)

  1. Epiglottic cartilage
  2. Thyroid cartilage
  3. Cricoid cartilage 

8

Hyoid Bone

  • from 2nd/3rd pharyngeal arches
  • opposite C3/C4
  • no articulations, just attachment for hyoid muscles 

9

Hyoid Muscles 

  • Suprahyoid and Infrahyoid groups
  • Functions
    • Swallowing
    • Accessory Chewing

10

Suprahyoid Muscles 

  1. Mylohyoid 
  2. Digastric Muscle
  3. Stylohyoid Muscle 

 

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11

Mylohyoid Muscle 

  • Floor of mouth 
  • Innervation - CN V3

12

Digastric Muscle 

  1. Anterior Belly - attached to mandible
    1. Innervation - CN V3
  2. Posterior Belly - attached to mastoid process
    1. Innervation - CN VII

13

Stylohyoid 

  • attached to styloid process and hyoid bone 
  • Innervation - CN VII

14

Trigeminal Nerve

  • 5th Cranial nerve (CN V)

has 3 major branches V1, V2, V3

15

Infrahyoid Muscles 

  1. Sternohyoid 
  2. Sternothyroid
  3. Thyrohyoid 
  4. Omohyoid (superior/inferior bellies)
  • all EXCEPT Thyrohyoid innervated by ansa cervicalis (motor part of cervical plexus)
  • Thyrohyoid innervated by C1

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16

Cervical Plexus 

  • ****made from ventral rami C1-C4 spinal nerves
  • sensory (Cutaneous) and motor (Ansa cervicalis)

17

Ansa Cervicalis 

  • unity of superior (C1) and inferior (C2 & C3) roots
  • motor innervation to infrahyoid muscles

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18

Sensory part of Cervical Plexus

  • Cutaneous to neck/shoulder
  • Exit behind Sternocleidomastoid 
  1. Lesser Occipital (C2)
  2. Greater auricular (C2&C3)
  3. Transverse cervical (C2&C3)
  4. Supraclavicular nerves (C3&C4)

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19

Strernocleidomastoid muscle (SCM)

  • Function: Flexes neck (bilaterally); turns face to opposite side (unilaterally) 
  • Innervation: Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI)
  • divides neck into anterior and posterior triangles

20

Cervical Fascia

  1. Superficial Cervical Fascia 
    1. has platysma muscle (shaving muscle)
    2. innervated by CN VII
  2. Deep Cervical Fascia
    1. Investing Layer
      1. Surrounds Trapezius & SCM 
    2. Prevertebral Layer
      1. extends sideways as axillary sheath
    3. Pretracheal Layer
      1. Muscular layer - surrounds infrahyoids
      2. Visceral layer - surrounds thyroid, trachea, esophagus 
         

21

Carotid Sheath contains

  1. Common Carotid Artery
  2. Internal Jugular Vein (IJV)
  3. Vagus Nerve (CN X)

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22

Investing Layer

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23

Pretracheal Layer

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24

Prevertebral Layer

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25

Cervical Triangles 

  1. Anterior Triangle
  2. Posterior Triangle

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26

Anterior Triangles 

  1. Submandibular Triangle
  2. Submental Triangle
  3. Muscular Triangle
  4. Carotid Triangle 

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27

Submandibular Triangle 

  • Submandibular gland
  • Facial artery & vein

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28

Muscular Triangle

  • Infrahyoid muscle
  • part of anterior jugular vein

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29

Carotid Triangle 

  • Carotid sheath (IJV, CN X, Common Carotid artery)
  • Ansa Cervicalis
  • Hypoglossal nerve

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30

Bifurcations of the Common Carotid Artery

  • Internal and External carotids
  • External branches into
    • Superior thyroid artery
    • Lingual artery
    • Facial artery 

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31

Posterior Triangle Contents 

  • Sensory branch of cervical plexus (Erb's point)
  • External jugular vein 
  • Spinal accessory nerve
  • Root of brachial plexus 

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32

Spinal Accessory Nerve

  • C1-C5
  • exits skull via jugular foramen 
  • travels w/ vagus nerve
  • innervates with SOMATIC MOTOR FIBERS
    • SCM
    • Trapezius 
  • Traverses posterior triangle

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