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Anatomy > Orbit and Eye > Flashcards

Flashcards in Orbit and Eye Deck (34):
1

Bones of Orbit

  1. Frontal 
  2. Zygyomatic
  3. Maxillary
  4. Lacrimal
  5. Ethmoid 
  6. Palatine
  7. Sphenoid 

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2

Structures passing through Optic Canal

  1. CN II
  2. Opthalmic artery 

3

Structures through Superior Orbital Fissure

  1. CN III
  2. CN IV
  3. CN V1
  4. CN VI

4

Structures through Inferior orbita fissure & infraorbital groove

  1. Infraorbital nerve
  2. Infraorbital vessels 

5

Strucutres through Anterior & Posterior Ethmoidal Foramina

  • Ant/Post ethmoidal nerves
  • Ant./Post Ethmoidal vessels 

6

Components of Eyelid

  • Skin
  • Subcutaneous tissue
  • Levator Palpebrae Superioris
  • Orbital Septum
  • Tarsus
    • contain Meibomian (tarsal) glands 
    • superior/inferior tarsus muscle
  • Conjunctiva
    • Thin membrane covering inner eyelid 

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7

Branches of V1

  • Frontal
  • Supratrochlear
  • Supraorbital 
  • Lacrimal 

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8

Terminal ganglion of V1 and location 

Gasserian/Semi-lunar ganglion in Meckel's Cave

9

Pathway of tears from lacrimal gland 

Lacrimal glands-->surface of cornea-->lacrimal canaliculi --> lacrimal sac--> nasolacrimal duct 

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10

Innervation of Lacrimal Gland

  • General Sensory 
    • Lacrimal Nerve (Branch of V1)
  • Parasympathetic
    • Greater Petrosal Nerve (branch of VII) via V1 
  • Sympathetic 
    • Deep Petrosal Nerve  (branch of Carotid Plexus) via V1

11

Path of parasympathetic innervation of Lacrimal Gland

VII --> Greater Petrosal Nerve --> Pterygoid canal --> Pterygopalatine ganglion --> Zygomaticotemporal nerve of V2 --> Lacrimal nerve of V1 ---> Lacrimal Gland

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12

Path of Sympathetic Innervation of Lacrimal Gland 

Carotid Plexus --> Deep Petrosal nerve --> pterygoid canal --> pterygoid ganglion --> Zygomaticotemporal nerve of V2 --> Lacrimal Nerve of V1 --> Lacrimal Nerve of V1

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13

Branches of V1 Nerve

  • Frontal
  • Supratrochlear
  • Lacrimal
  • Supraorbital
  • Nasociliary Nerve 

14

Branches of Nasociliary Nerve 

  • Long ciliary
  • Short Ciliary
  • Anterior ethmoidal
  • Posterior ethmoidal
  • Infra-trochlear 

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15

Optic Nerve (II)

  • Origin: Lateral Geniculate Body
  • Course: Left and Right Optic Tracts cross and travel through optic canal 
  • Components: Special Sensory 
  • Ganglion: "Ganglion cells" of Retina (cell bodies here)`a
  • Function: Vision 

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16

Incyclotorsion  and what mediated by

Depression, abduction, and medial rotation 

  • Mediated by Superior Oblique 

17

Excyclotorsion and mediated by what muscle 

Elevation, abduction, lateral rotation 

  • Mediated by Inferior Oblique

18

Superior Rectus

  • Elevation and Adduction 
  • Innervated by III (Superior division)

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19

Inferior Rectus

  • Depression and Adduction 
  • Innervated by III (Inferior division)

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20

Superior Oblique 

  • Depression and Abduction 
  • Incyclotorsion 
  • Innervated by IV (Trochlear)
  • Goes through Trochlea (pulley system)

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21

Inferior Oblique

  • Elevates and Abducts 
  • Innervated by III (Inferior division)
  • Excyclotorsion 

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22

Lateral Rectus

  • Abducts eye
  • Innervated by VI (Abducens)

23

Medial Rectus 

  • Adducts eye
  • Innervated by III (Inferior division)

24

Levator Palpebrae Superioris

  • Elevates eyelid
  • Innervated by III (Superior Division)

25

Occulomotor Nerve (III)

Origin: Oculomotor nucleus (Somatic Motor)  & E-W nucleus (para visc. motor)

Course: Post. Cranial foss --> mid cranial fossa --> Cavernous sinus -->superior orbital fissure

Branches: Superior & Inferior Division 

Components: Somatic motor & parasympathetic 

Ganglion: Ciliary 

Distribution: All eye muscles except Superior Oblique and Lateral Rectus

Function: eye movements, 2 smooth muscles 

***sympathetics from symp. trunk travel w/ III to reach eye 

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26

What nerve and type of nerve synapses in cilliary ganglion?

Parasympathetic of III

  • all other nerves pass through cilliary ganglion but do not synapse 

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27

Trochlear Nerve (IV)

Origin: Trochlear Nucleus

Course: Middle cranial fossa --> Cavernous sinus --> Superior orbital fissure

Components: Somatic motor

Ganglion: [NONE]

Distribution: Superior Oblique muscle

Function: Eye movement

****is only cranial nerve to emerge from brainstem...longest intracranial course and susceptible to damage from blunt trauma 

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28

Abducens (VI)

Origin: Pons

Course: Post. cranial fossa --> middle cranial fossa --> cavernous sinus --> SOF

Components: Somatic Motor 

Ganglion: [NONE]

Distribution: Lateral Rectus Muscle

Funciton: Eye movement 

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29

Structures of Superior Orbital Fissure

  • Outside Tendinous Ring (Made by eye muscles)...LOFT
    • Lacrimal of V1
    • Opthalmic vein 
    • Frontal of V1
    • Trochlear (III)
  • Inside Tendinous RIng...NC 36
    • IV
    • VI
    • Nasocilliary of V1
       

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30

Layers of Eyeball

  • Outer Layer
    • Sclera
    • Cornea 
  • Middle Layer
    • Choroid 
    • Cilliary Body
      • adjusts shape of lens
    • Iris 
  • Retina

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31

Chambers of Eyeball

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32

Retina

  • Optic Disc
    • location where blood vessels leave retina
    • blind spot; not rods/cones there
    • lighter than surrounding retina
  • Macula lutea
    • thinnest area of retina
    • few rods, more cones
    • highly sensitive to light
    • "yellow spot"

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33

34

Intrinsic Muscles of the Eye

  • Ciliary Muscle
    • Constricts cilliary body
    • Innervated by III
  • Spincter pupillae
    • circularly arranged 
    • innervated by III
    • constricts pupil
  • Dialator pupillae
    • radially arranged
    • innervated by sympathetics
    • dilates pupil

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