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0

What does sensitivity testing do?

Tests the effectiveness/resistance of an antibiotic.

1

Broad range antibiotics do what?

Attack everything

2

Narrow range antibiotics do what?

Attacks a small portion of a bacteria

3

What are Pedigrees?

Visualization and tracking tool for genetic traits across generations

4

What is DNA Replication?

S phase of Interphase
copying of an organisms entire genome
critical step in cell replication

5

What is Beginning Replication?

Origins of replication
point where dna can be easily opened up
made up of alot of Adenines & Thymines? AT Rich

6

How many bonds can A:T have?

2 Bonds (easily opened up)

7

How many bonds can GC have?

3 Bonds (Harder to open up)

8

Describe small chromosomes?

Bacterial, circular
4.6 million bases
not alot of complexing proteins
no garbage dna
A single origin of replication
replication occurs simultaneously in opposite directions

9

Describe large chromosomes

Humans, have multiple linear chromosomes
3.3 billion bases, highly complexed w/ proteins
most is garbage dna
multiple origins of replication
DNA replication is semi-conservative

10

Replication Process

Carried out by a series of enzymes conserved across all cells

11

Replication Bubble

Point where DNA is open & being replicated.

12

1. DNA Primase

Puts down a short sequence of RNA
to begin building DNA off of "primer" & eventually removed then replaced by DNA

13

2. DNA Helicase

separates 2 strands to allow the replication machinery to access the dna

14

3. DNA Polymerase

Responsible for DNA synthesis, puts down new nucleotides.
2 working simultaneously in each replication bubble
shaped like a hand with thumbs
functions are dna synthesis proof reading to see if there has been a mistake. & remove faulty nucleotides.

15

4. Dna ligase

Seals gaps in the dna backbone (sealent)

16

5. DNA Gyrase

(Topoismerase)
works far ahead of the replication machinery
relives tension in the dna created by the opening the strands & moving the bubble

17

Name the 5 DNA Enzymes

1. DNA Primase
2. DNA Helicase
3. DNA Polymerase
4. DNA Ligase
5. DNA Gyrase

18

5' -> 3' is what strand?

Leading strand

19

3' -> 5' Prime is which strand?

Lagging strand

20

Which way does the Lagging strand read?

3' -> 5'

21

Which way does the Leading strand read?

5' -> 3'

22

What are Topoismerase?

The uncoiling of dna slightly to relieve pressure so it does not shatter.
found in DNA Gyrase