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What are Nucleic Acids?

Building blocks of genetic material
informational library of every organism.

1

How many categories of Nucleic Acid are there?

2.
(DNA/RNA)

2

What is DNA?

DeoxyriboNucleicAcid

3

What does DNA do?

Stores infromation.

4

What is RNA?

RiboNucleicAcid

5

What does RNA do?

Intermediate molecule between DNA & protien

6

What are Nucleosides?

Carbon macromolecules in a ring structure.

7

Name the 5 common Nucleosides

Uracil
Thymine
Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine

8

DNA composition:

Thymine
Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
(NO URACIL)

9

How many common Nucleosides in a ring structure?

5
Uracil, Thymine, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine.

10

RNA Composition:

Uracil
Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
NO Thymine

11

What does RNA NOT have?

Thymine

12

What does DNA NOT have?

Uracil

13

Name the DNA/RNA pairings:

AT : TA
GC : CG
UT : TU

14

How many Hydrogen bonds does A:T make?

Adenine & Thymine make 2 hydrogen bonds

15

How many hydrogen bonds do G:C make?

Guanine & Cytosine make up 3 hydrogen bonds.

16

What do A:T together make?

Access point to our DNA.
Bonding to create a nucleic acid backbone

17

What is the DNA strands called?

Alpha Helical Structure.

18

list the levels of genetic organizations

1. Nucleotides - Individual Subunits (letters)
2. Codon - 3 letter groupings of nucleotides. Indicate specific amino acids. (words)
3. Genes - Multiple codons grouped together in a single structure. (sentance/paragraph)
4. Chromosomes - Multiple genes grouped together in a single structure. (book)
5. Genome - All the genetic information for that organism. (library)

19

Name the two different Levels (kinds) of Chromosomes structure.

1. Circular Chromosomes
2. Linear Chromosomes

20

Describe circular chromosomes

simple, no "garbage" dna
begin usually where they end
usually small
~ 2000 genes
(example: Bacterial chromosomes - mitochondrial dna)

21

Describe linear chromosomes

simple or complex, can contain alot of "garbage" dna
can be quite large
beginning point & distinct end point.
tend to be very highly complexed w/ proteins.
(Example: Human chromosomes)
~ 25,000 genes
alot of garbage dna codes for nothing

22

What are Plasmids?

Miniature chromosomes.
most often used by bacteria
contain at least one beneficial gene
antibiotic resistance
can be shared between between bacteria
helps the bacteria to survive

23

What are viruses?

Hijack cells to produce more viruses.
Genetic code that allows for invasion of a cell
conversion of a cell, killing of a cell.

24

What do Lytic Viruses do?

Infect a host cell
convert it to a viral factory
ultimately kill the cell & move on

25

What do Lysogenic Viruses do?

Infect a host cell
insert its viral DNA in host genome
goes dormant
some stimulus will cause it to leave genome & enter the lytic cycle