Flashcards in Nucleic Acids Deck (26)
What are Nucleic Acids?
Building blocks of genetic material
informational library of every organism.
How many categories of Nucleic Acid are there?
What is DNA?
What does DNA do?
What is RNA?
What does RNA do?
Intermediate molecule between DNA & protien
What are Nucleosides?
Carbon macromolecules in a ring structure.
Name the 5 common Nucleosides
How many common Nucleosides in a ring structure?
Uracil, Thymine, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine.
What does RNA NOT have?
What does DNA NOT have?
Name the DNA/RNA pairings:
AT : TA
GC : CG
UT : TU
How many Hydrogen bonds does A:T make?
Adenine & Thymine make 2 hydrogen bonds
How many hydrogen bonds do G:C make?
Guanine & Cytosine make up 3 hydrogen bonds.
What do A:T together make?
Access point to our DNA.
Bonding to create a nucleic acid backbone
What is the DNA strands called?
Alpha Helical Structure.
list the levels of genetic organizations
1. Nucleotides - Individual Subunits (letters)
2. Codon - 3 letter groupings of nucleotides. Indicate specific amino acids. (words)
3. Genes - Multiple codons grouped together in a single structure. (sentance/paragraph)
4. Chromosomes - Multiple genes grouped together in a single structure. (book)
5. Genome - All the genetic information for that organism. (library)
Name the two different Levels (kinds) of Chromosomes structure.
1. Circular Chromosomes
2. Linear Chromosomes
Describe circular chromosomes
simple, no "garbage" dna
begin usually where they end
~ 2000 genes
(example: Bacterial chromosomes - mitochondrial dna)
Describe linear chromosomes
simple or complex, can contain alot of "garbage" dna
can be quite large
beginning point & distinct end point.
tend to be very highly complexed w/ proteins.
(Example: Human chromosomes)
~ 25,000 genes
alot of garbage dna codes for nothing
What are Plasmids?
most often used by bacteria
contain at least one beneficial gene
can be shared between between bacteria
helps the bacteria to survive
What are viruses?
Hijack cells to produce more viruses.
Genetic code that allows for invasion of a cell
conversion of a cell, killing of a cell.
What do Lytic Viruses do?
Infect a host cell
convert it to a viral factory
ultimately kill the cell & move on