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0

What are point mutations?

Changes in singular nucleotides
change of one nucleotide to another

1

What are frame shift mutations?

Add or delete a nucleotide to change the codon arrangement

2

What are the 4 types of mutations?

1. Forward Mutation
2. Reverse Mutation
-Back Mutations
-Suppressor Mutations
3. Neutral Mutation
4. Null Mutation

3

What is Forward Mutation?

Result in a change of phenotype

4

What is Reverse Mutation?

Restoration of a normal phenotype by a second mutation

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What are the 2 subcategories of Reverse mutation?

a. Back Mutations
b. Suppressor Mutation

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What are Back Mutations?

Original Mutation is reversed by a second mutation.

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What are Suppressor Mutations?

Restoration of normal phenotype by mutation in another location

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What are Neutral Mutations?

They result in NO change in phenotype

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What are Null Mutation?

NO Functions product is made

10

What are the 4 types of DNA Repair Mechanisms?

1. - Base Excision Repair
2. - Nucleotide Excision Repair
3. - Recombination
4. - SOS Response

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What is Base Excision Repair?

DNA repairing mechanism
for very small damage
enzymes remove the damaged nucleosides
second enzyme cuts out the sugar
polymerase refills the gap
ligase seals it shut

12

Nucleotide Excision Repair

more serious damage
enzymes remove a string of nucleotides around the damage
tear out a strip
polymerase refills the area
ligase seals it shut.

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What is Recombination?

3rd degree of DNA repair mechanism Use pieces of other chromosomes to attempt to fix the damage.
pretty severe damage

14

What is SOS Response?

Very severe damage
cell turns on all of its repair mechanisms
its like the last resort for a cell to save itself
results in large scale mutations then result of apoptosis

15

Define cancer?

Accumulation of mutation that leads to an abnormally replicating cell

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What are two common influence factors of cancer?

Genetics
Enviroment

17

Name the 6 Hallmarks of Cancer..

1. Immortality
2. Evade Death
3. Evade Immune System
4. Self sufficient in growth signals
5. Induce Angiogenesis
6. Metastatic Potential
7. Tumor Microenviroment

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Immortality

no longer age, turn on telomerase,
- rapid development that is usually used as fetus.

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Evade death

they dont respond to apoptosis

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Evade immune system

cancer cells wont be effected by the normal immune system that trys to kill them

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self sufficient in growth signals

tells themselfs keep going!

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Induce Angiogenesis

simulate blood vessel foundation

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Metastatic Potential

the ability to leave & colonize new tissues

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Tumor Micro enviroment

use up all available O2 - hypoxic
hot - increase temp
lower Ph.