Flashcards in Types of Mutations Deck (25)
What are point mutations?
Changes in singular nucleotides
change of one nucleotide to another
What are frame shift mutations?
Add or delete a nucleotide to change the codon arrangement
What are the 4 types of mutations?
1. Forward Mutation
2. Reverse Mutation
3. Neutral Mutation
4. Null Mutation
What is Forward Mutation?
Result in a change of phenotype
What is Reverse Mutation?
Restoration of a normal phenotype by a second mutation
What are the 2 subcategories of Reverse mutation?
a. Back Mutations
b. Suppressor Mutation
What are Back Mutations?
Original Mutation is reversed by a second mutation.
What are Suppressor Mutations?
Restoration of normal phenotype by mutation in another location
What are Neutral Mutations?
They result in NO change in phenotype
What are Null Mutation?
NO Functions product is made
What are the 4 types of DNA Repair Mechanisms?
1. - Base Excision Repair
2. - Nucleotide Excision Repair
3. - Recombination
4. - SOS Response
What is Base Excision Repair?
DNA repairing mechanism
for very small damage
enzymes remove the damaged nucleosides
second enzyme cuts out the sugar
polymerase refills the gap
ligase seals it shut
Nucleotide Excision Repair
more serious damage
enzymes remove a string of nucleotides around the damage
tear out a strip
polymerase refills the area
ligase seals it shut.
What is Recombination?
3rd degree of DNA repair mechanism Use pieces of other chromosomes to attempt to fix the damage.
pretty severe damage
What is SOS Response?
Very severe damage
cell turns on all of its repair mechanisms
its like the last resort for a cell to save itself
results in large scale mutations then result of apoptosis
Accumulation of mutation that leads to an abnormally replicating cell
What are two common influence factors of cancer?
Name the 6 Hallmarks of Cancer..
2. Evade Death
3. Evade Immune System
4. Self sufficient in growth signals
5. Induce Angiogenesis
6. Metastatic Potential
7. Tumor Microenviroment
no longer age, turn on telomerase,
- rapid development that is usually used as fetus.
they dont respond to apoptosis
Evade immune system
cancer cells wont be effected by the normal immune system that trys to kill them
self sufficient in growth signals
tells themselfs keep going!
simulate blood vessel foundation
the ability to leave & colonize new tissues