Flashcards in Neoplasia 1 Deck (59)
Deaths in Australia: ___% are caused by malignancy?
What are the 'Big 5' cancers?
Cancer by definition is?
Neoplasia is an umbrella term to cover what?
cancer, benign lesions, etc.
does a tumour have to be neoplastic?
not necessarily but nowadays it's synonamous with neoplasm
2 main groups of neoplasms:
Spectrum between these two extremes
What are other features that enable progression of neoplasm besides immortality?
evade growth suppressors
Leading cancers in men and women?
prostate and breast
Wilm's tumour affects what organ in kids?
Paediatric cancers: 3 examples
lymphomas, bone cancers
describe Benign cancers
well differentiated cells
Can benign tumours be life threatening?
rarely, in brain could raise intracranial pressure
describe Malignant Tumours' growth:
invassive destructive growth
Malignant Tumours cirumscription?
What do Malignant Tumours introduce in the stroma as they invade?
Why would you sometimes get Necrosis in a Malignant Tumours?
outgrowing blood supply, usually in the core
What cytokines are released within Malignant Tumours?
How is the differentiation of cells in Malignant Tumours?
variable, well, mod, poor, anaplastic
What does anaplastic mean?
What does transcoelomic mean?
tumour spread via the pleual, peritoneal cavities
Ovarian cancer is always malignant? or benign?
It's borderline/uncertain malignant
4 ways a Malignant Tumour can spread?
4 common sites of metastasis?
colour of neoplastic lesions?
Due to transcoelomic spread of a Malignant Tumour on bowel serosa, what can happen?
cause ascites due to increase fluid from capillaries
When a Malignant Tumours spreads via lymphatics and into broncho vascular bundles, you get patterns in the lungs: what is this called?
Size and shape of neoplastic cells?
Describe nuclear region of neoplastic cells?
more mitotic activity
How is the architecure in neoplastic cells?
describe desmoplastic stroma:
dense collagen, more fibroblasts and inflamm cells trying to destroy tumours
desribe a squamous carcinoma
karatinization in the centre, surrounded by flat squamous cells with intercellular bridges
what the is suffix for benign?
suffixes for malignant?
are lymphomas malignant or benign?
what is a 'grade' in a malignant tumour?
T/F stroma is important for tumour growth
how does a tumour remodell microenvironment? 3 ways
Explain seed and soil of malignant tumours?
organ like liver, more likely to metastasize, compared to spleen
majority of tumour volume is cells? t/F?
False. majority is stroma
2 main ways to get tumours
3 big classes of carcinogenic agents?
3 main classes of inherited?
tumour suppressor genes
defective DNA repair
T/F sustained cell normal proliferation is risk of mutagenesis?
Premalignant lesions are?
Dysplasia, intraepithelial neoplasia and premalignant lesions mean the same thing?
what is dysplasia?
abonormality of development in size, shape, organization
are congenital dysplasias premalignant?
are epithelial dysplasias premalignant?
dysplasia past the basement membrane is grade?
what does in situ carcinoma mean?
didn't past basement membrane
can squamous dysplasia metastasize?
nope, benign lesion
glandular dysplasia are highly efficient with mucous secretion
Nope, incomplete cellular maturation makes them crappy secretors
polyps from glandular or squamous dysplastic lesions?