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Flashcards in Neoplasia 1 Deck (59):
1

Deaths in Australia: ___% are caused by malignancy?

30%

2

What are the 'Big 5' cancers?

Prostate
colorectal
breast
melanoma
lung

3

Cancer by definition is?

Malignant

4

Neoplasia is an umbrella term to cover what?

cancer, benign lesions, etc.

5

does a tumour have to be neoplastic?

not necessarily but nowadays it's synonamous with neoplasm

6

2 main groups of neoplasms:

benign
malignant
Spectrum between these two extremes

7

What are other features that enable progression of neoplasm besides immortality?

immune evasion
evade growth suppressors
angiogenesis

8

Leading cancers in men and women?

prostate and breast

9

Wilm's tumour affects what organ in kids?

kidney

10

Paediatric cancers: 3 examples

leukemias
brain tumors
retinoblastoma
lymphomas, bone cancers

11

describe Benign cancers

local
slow
well circumscribed(usually)
well differentiated cells
can't metastisize

12

Can benign tumours be life threatening?

rarely, in brain could raise intracranial pressure

13

describe Malignant Tumours' growth:

invassive destructive growth

14

Malignant Tumours cirumscription?

poorly circumscribed

15

What do Malignant Tumours introduce in the stroma as they invade?

desmoplasia

16

Why would you sometimes get Necrosis in a Malignant Tumours?

outgrowing blood supply, usually in the core

17

What cytokines are released within Malignant Tumours?

TGF-B

18

How is the differentiation of cells in Malignant Tumours?

variable, well, mod, poor, anaplastic

19

What does anaplastic mean?

completely undifferentiated

20

What does transcoelomic mean?

tumour spread via the pleual, peritoneal cavities

21

Ovarian cancer is always malignant? or benign?

It's borderline/uncertain malignant

22

4 ways a Malignant Tumour can spread?

lymphatic
blood-borne
local invasion
transcoelomic

23

4 common sites of metastasis?

liver
bone
brain
lung

24

colour of neoplastic lesions?

usually pale

25

Due to transcoelomic spread of a Malignant Tumour on bowel serosa, what can happen?

cause ascites due to increase fluid from capillaries

26

When a Malignant Tumours spreads via lymphatics and into broncho vascular bundles, you get patterns in the lungs: what is this called?

lymphangitis carcinomatosis

27

Size and shape of neoplastic cells?

larger
pleomorphic

28

Describe nuclear region of neoplastic cells?

coarder chromatin
hyperchromatic nuclei
larger nucleoli
more mitotic activity

29

How is the architecure in neoplastic cells?

disorganized

30

describe desmoplastic stroma:

dense collagen, more fibroblasts and inflamm cells trying to destroy tumours

31

Adeno =

glandular

32

desribe a squamous carcinoma

karatinization in the centre, surrounded by flat squamous cells with intercellular bridges

33

leiomyo=

smooth muscle

34

osteo:

osteobastic

35

what the is suffix for benign?

-oma

36

suffixes for malignant?

carcinoma
sarcoma

37

carcinoma =

epithelial malignant

38

sarcoma =

mesenchymal malignant

39

are lymphomas malignant or benign?

malignant

40

what is a 'grade' in a malignant tumour?

differentiation level

41

T/F stroma is important for tumour growth

true

42

how does a tumour remodell microenvironment? 3 ways

cell-cell
cell-matrix communication
cytokines

43

Explain seed and soil of malignant tumours?

organ like liver, more likely to metastasize, compared to spleen

44

majority of tumour volume is cells? t/F?

False. majority is stroma

45

2 main ways to get tumours

acquired
inherited

46

3 big classes of carcinogenic agents?

microbes
radiation
chemicals

47

3 main classes of inherited?

tumour suppressor genes
defective DNA repair
multifactorial

48

T/F sustained cell normal proliferation is risk of mutagenesis?

True

49

Premalignant lesions are?

non-invasive precursors

50

Dysplasia, intraepithelial neoplasia and premalignant lesions mean the same thing?

yes

51

what is dysplasia?

abonormality of development in size, shape, organization

52

are congenital dysplasias premalignant?

nope

53

are epithelial dysplasias premalignant?

yes

54

dysplasia past the basement membrane is grade?

3

55

what does in situ carcinoma mean?

didn't past basement membrane

56

can squamous dysplasia metastasize?

nope, benign lesion

57

glandular dysplasia are highly efficient with mucous secretion

Nope, incomplete cellular maturation makes them crappy secretors

58

polyps from glandular or squamous dysplastic lesions?

glandular

59

Do intraepithelial neoplasia premalignant?

yes