Flashcards in Obstructive/Restrictive Deck (70)
Pathology is all about the _______ of disease
Basic and Systematic pathology is learned where?
Clinical pathology is applying what?
interpret findings of the basic and systematic pathology
6 'levels' of disease
I DIVINE TIME: Go!
iatrogenic (drugs,sx, radiation)
4 things contained in the acinus of the lung:
3 characteristics of obstructive/restricitve lung diseases?
COPD is made up of 3 diseases:
Is bronchiectasis COPD?
2 word definition of asthma?
Is asthma diagnosed histologically?
T/F? Ventolin helps decrease mucus production, vascular permeability, and bronchospasm?
False. Only bronchospasm.
How do you treat late phase asthma?
What is late phase asthma?
chemotaxis of eosinophils/lymphocytes, inflammation/epithelial damage
What is atelectasis?
severe chronic asthma causes airway remodelling which means what?
fibrosis and irreversible obstruction
What is cor pulmonale?
right sided heart failure
Emphysema definition is?
Abnormal, permanent enlargement of air spaces distal to terminal bronchiole (acinus)
Emphysema has fibrosis?
NOPE! destruction of alveolar wall without fibrosis
Cigarette smoking causes centriacinar? or panacinar?
What's the mechanism of damage for tobacco to alveoli
Smoke--> draws neutrophils to area--> release neutrophil elastase -->tobacco inactivates antiproteases-->build up of elastase-->damage alveoli
How does Emphysema cause airway obstruction?
Loss of elastic recoil due to too much elastase from neutrophils. Become FLOPPY.
What's the main complication of Emphysema?
3 forms of Emphysema?
Chronic Bronchitis clinical definition?
persistent cough productive of sputum for at least 3 months in 2 consecutive years
What's the number one cause of Chronic Bronchitis?
chronic irritation from cigarette smoke
features of Chronic Bronchitis?
airway inflamm, scarring, narrowing
How do you get more mucus with Chronic Bronchitis?
hypertrophy of mucus secreting glands (>0.4 Reid index)
some increased goblet cells
Do you get fibrosis in Chronic Bronchitis?
What's so dangerous about squamous metaplasia?
risk of neoplasms
Why would the columnar cells turn into squamous?
squamous more tough, but no cilia
What's the number one complication in Chronic Bronchitis?
Secondary bacterial infections
Secondary complications in Chronic Bronchitis?
hypoxis/pulmonary HTN, cor pulmonale, neoplasia
Where does small airways disease affect?
terminal bronchioles (<2mm)
Is small airways disease part of COPD?
What are the features of small airways disease?
inflammation, fibrosis, obstruction of terminal bronchioles
>90% of COPD caused by:
COPD is a group of 3 conditions:
Small Airways Disease ('asthma')
Exacerbations of COPD are usually cause by what?
infections in pink puffer?
occasional, not as much as blue bloater
CXR of pink puffer is?
hyperinflated, small heart
pink puffer is emphysema or chronic bronchitis?
Age of blue bloaters?
Dypnea of pink puffer?
cough/sputum of blue bloater?
early/ lots of sputum
Repiratory insufficiency of blu bloater?
cor pulmonale in pink puffer?
airway resistance in blue bloater?
elastic recoil in pink puffer?
CXR of blue bloater?
elastic recoil in blue bloater?
airway resistance in pink puffer?
cor pulmonale in blue bloater?
respiratory insufficiency in pink puffer?
infections in blue blue bloater?
age of pink puffer?
blue bloater is emphysema or chronic bronchitis?
Smoking causes what % of cancer and CVD?
Drug related deaths due to:
__% illicit drugs
COPD is on the decline?
Nope, on the rise
Smoking related deaths:
4 reasons why smoking predisposes to pulmonary infections
inhibition of mucociliary escalator
inhibit leukocyte function
direct damage to epithelial later
irreversible, abnormal dilation of bronchi/bronchioles
Bronchiectasis happens how? 3 reasons
destruction of airways from infections/inflamm
loss of elastic tissue
can't clear out crap
Cilia disorders, CF, obstruction/infections can all cause what in the lungs?
How do you get a very severe infection in the lungs that antibiotics can't even really help much?
mucous plug AND infection behind it = a bad day
What is the defining feature of restrictive lung disease?
Inflammation and fibrosis the inter alveolar septa
What does restrictive lung disease look like on chest x-ray?
what you see in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?
usual interstitial pneumonitis