Obstructive/Restrictive Flashcards Preview

Jason's Respiratory Block > Obstructive/Restrictive > Flashcards

Flashcards in Obstructive/Restrictive Deck (70):
1

Pathology is all about the _______ of disease

MECHANISM

2

Basic and Systematic pathology is learned where?

textbook

3

Clinical pathology is applying what?

interpret findings of the basic and systematic pathology

4

6 'levels' of disease

Molecular
ultrastructural
cells
tissues/organs
physiological system
society

5

I DIVINE TIME: Go!

infectious
degenerative
inflamm/immune
vascular
iatrogenic (drugs,sx, radiation)
neoplastic
environment
trauma
idiopathic
metabolic
endocrine

6

4 things contained in the acinus of the lung:

Respiratory bronchiole
alveolar ducts
alveolar sacs
alveoli

7

3 characteristics of obstructive/restricitve lung diseases?

chronic
diffuse
non-infectious

8

COPD is made up of 3 diseases:

Emphysema
chronic bronchitis
asthma

9

Is bronchiectasis COPD?

Separate disease

10

2 word definition of asthma?

reversible bronchoconstriction

11

Is asthma diagnosed histologically?

Nope, clinical/physiological

12

T/F? Ventolin helps decrease mucus production, vascular permeability, and bronchospasm?

False. Only bronchospasm.

13

How do you treat late phase asthma?

Corticosteroids

14

What is late phase asthma?

chemotaxis of eosinophils/lymphocytes, inflammation/epithelial damage

15

What is atelectasis?

alveoli collapse

16

severe chronic asthma causes airway remodelling which means what?

fibrosis and irreversible obstruction

17

What is cor pulmonale?

right sided heart failure

18

Emphysema definition is?

Abnormal, permanent enlargement of air spaces distal to terminal bronchiole (acinus)

19

Emphysema has fibrosis?

NOPE! destruction of alveolar wall without fibrosis

20

Cigarette smoking causes centriacinar? or panacinar?

Centriacinar

21

What's the mechanism of damage for tobacco to alveoli

Smoke--> draws neutrophils to area--> release neutrophil elastase -->tobacco inactivates antiproteases-->build up of elastase-->damage alveoli

22

How does Emphysema cause airway obstruction?

Loss of elastic recoil due to too much elastase from neutrophils. Become FLOPPY.

23

What's the main complication of Emphysema?

Airflow obstruction

24

3 forms of Emphysema?

bullous
compensatory
interstitial

25

Chronic Bronchitis clinical definition?

persistent cough productive of sputum for at least 3 months in 2 consecutive years

26

What's the number one cause of Chronic Bronchitis?

chronic irritation from cigarette smoke

27

features of Chronic Bronchitis?

more mucus
airway inflamm, scarring, narrowing

28

How do you get more mucus with Chronic Bronchitis?

hypertrophy of mucus secreting glands (>0.4 Reid index)
some increased goblet cells

29

Do you get fibrosis in Chronic Bronchitis?

Yes.

30

What's so dangerous about squamous metaplasia?

risk of neoplasms

31

Why would the columnar cells turn into squamous?

squamous more tough, but no cilia

32

What's the number one complication in Chronic Bronchitis?

Secondary bacterial infections

33

Secondary complications in Chronic Bronchitis?

hypoxis/pulmonary HTN, cor pulmonale, neoplasia

34

Where does small airways disease affect?

terminal bronchioles (<2mm)

35

Is small airways disease part of COPD?

Yes, important

36

What are the features of small airways disease?

inflammation, fibrosis, obstruction of terminal bronchioles

37

>90% of COPD caused by:

Smoking

38

COPD is a group of 3 conditions:

Emphysema
Chronic Bronchitis
Small Airways Disease ('asthma')

39

Exacerbations of COPD are usually cause by what?

Infections: bacterial

40

infections in pink puffer?

occasional, not as much as blue bloater

41

CXR of pink puffer is?

hyperinflated, small heart

42

pink puffer is emphysema or chronic bronchitis?

emphysema

43

Age of blue bloaters?

40-45

44

Dypnea of pink puffer?

severe, early

45

cough/sputum of blue bloater?

early/ lots of sputum

46

Repiratory insufficiency of blu bloater?

repeated

47

cor pulmonale in pink puffer?

rare: terminal

48

airway resistance in blue bloater?

increased

49

elastic recoil in pink puffer?

low

50

CXR of blue bloater?

prominent vessels
large heart

51

elastic recoil in blue bloater?

normal

52

airway resistance in pink puffer?

normal

53

cor pulmonale in blue bloater?

common

54

respiratory insufficiency in pink puffer?

terminal

55

infections in blue blue bloater?

common

56

age of pink puffer?

50-75

57

blue bloater is emphysema or chronic bronchitis?

chronic bronchitis

58

Smoking causes what % of cancer and CVD?

15-30%

59

Drug related deaths due to:
__% cigarettes
__% alcohol
__% illicit drugs

82%
16%
2%

60

COPD is on the decline?

Nope, on the rise

61

Smoking related deaths:
Atherosclerosis:
Lung Cancer
COPD

35%
18%
20%

62

4 reasons why smoking predisposes to pulmonary infections

inhibition of mucociliary escalator
increase mucus
inhibit leukocyte function
direct damage to epithelial later

63

Define bronchiectasis

irreversible, abnormal dilation of bronchi/bronchioles

64

Bronchiectasis happens how? 3 reasons

destruction of airways from infections/inflamm
loss of elastic tissue
can't clear out crap

65

Cilia disorders, CF, obstruction/infections can all cause what in the lungs?

Bronchiectasis

66

How do you get a very severe infection in the lungs that antibiotics can't even really help much?

mucous plug AND infection behind it = a bad day

67

What is the defining feature of restrictive lung disease?

Inflammation and fibrosis the inter alveolar septa

68

What does restrictive lung disease look like on chest x-ray?

Diffuse reticule-nodular
groundglass patterns

69

what you see in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?

usual interstitial pneumonitis

70

What is the mean survival for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?

Three years