Flashcards in Resp Depression, Breathlessness Deck (50)
At Rest respiratory system clears how much O2 and CO2 per minute?
O2 = 250ml
CO2 = 200ml
How many horsepower can the aerobic&anaerobic metabolism sustain?
0.1 horse power
What PaO2, PaCO2 and pH are the chemoreceptors trying to maintain?
PaO2 = 100mmHg
How many litres/minute can the alveolar capillary membrane exchange?
Central chemoreceptors respond to what chemical? versus peripheral chemoreceptors?
Peripheral: CO2, O2, H+
Name 3 sensors for respiratory control?
What's the major output nerve of the brainstem for respiration?
Can the cortex override the brainstem re: respiration?
Where are the peripheral chemoreceptors?
carotid bodies and aortic arch
T/F? small increase in O2 = increase ventilation?
False. Small CO2 = rapid increase ventilation
At what point would you start hyperventilating re: PaO2 levels?
During exercise, what happens to PaO2?
During exercise, what happens to PaCO2?
decreases slightlty due to increased ventilation
During exercise, what happens to pH?
drops slightly due to lactic acid
Hypoventilation is what in terms of PaO2 and CO2?
Acute hypoventilation causes respiratory what?
Chronic hypoventilation causes metabolic what?
5 causes of hypoventilation?
Central (drive, suppression)
3 kinds of sleep apnea:
obstructive sleep apnoea
obesity hypoventilation syndrome
do all snorers have OSA?
Mechnism for snoring?
airway relaxes>throat narrowed>tongue falls backwards>turbulant flow = snoring
OSA cycle results in what kind of sleep?
6 reasons to suspect OSA?
persistent HTN/unexplained resp failure
what is paradoxical movement on polysomnogram mean?
no airflow but still trying to breath
Management of OSA?
lie on side
what happens to the brain after chronic hypoventilation due to OSA?
brain accepts higher levels of CO2, you wake less but then it spills over into daytime and normally have lower O2 and higher CO2 in your body
Resetting of respiratory centre happens with what other conditions?
severe COPD, pulmnoary fibrosis, neuromuscular disease
If patients have chronic hypercapnoea, what do you do about supplemental oxygen?
You don't have large amounts (only until they reach their 'normal') or else they'll die as they are breathing re: O2 levels rather than CO2 levels
4 key words for breathlessness?
total body work
When is most of the respiratory work done?
Two other things make up respiratory work besides inspiration
stretching work - elastic
airflow work - resistive
Dyspnea is sensation of increased what? and what?
load and drive
Besides repiratory and cardiac causes, name 4 other causes of dyspnea?
Does phrenic nerve palsy cause dyspnea?
What is usually the cause of SOB, cough, sputum, wheeze/stridor? what tests to do?
affected airways, (upper or lower) bronchiectasis, most likely obstructive
test with spirometry
68 yr old with SOB, cough, sputum, tobacco, hyperinflation and wheezes, what imaging? what tests?
most likely COPD
SOB, cough and crepitations, where are problems most likely?
alveolar, could also be bronchiectasis
Someone with normal chest examination, haemoptysis, pleuritic pain, look out for?
PE, or pulmonary hypertension/vasculitis
What is the Wells Score?
To help dx a PE
If Wells score is >4 what to do?
rule in with pulmonary angiogram
If Wells Score is <4 then what?
D dimer to rule out
How many % of dyspnoea are diagnosed with symptoms, signs and special tests?
what is MUD?
medically undiagnosed dyspnoea?
Types of MUD include?
other disease/new? MI, DM2
increased awareness of maximum effort
Breathlessness in young athletes in 12-15% of Australians are usually diagnosed with this?
Breathlessness in young athletes, 30-40% have what? how treat?
exercise induced bronchoconstriction
treat with asthma treatments
What can be confused with Breathlessness in young athletes and responds to speech therapy and CBT?
vocal cord dysfunction/laryngeal dysfunction
If there are no ECG, BP of SaO2 abnormalities but have have steep heart rate, exceeive Ve max, early anaerobic threshold, what could it be?
How to confirm deconditioning?
3 months of aerobic training then remeasure