Flashcards in Lung Infections Deck (68)
Bacteria cause ____% of pneumonia cases?
What kind of pneumonia can be present in immunocompromised patients?
fungi and protozoa
Clinical features of pneumonia? 5 things
impaired gas exchange
50% of community acquired lung infections are what organism?
Hospital pneumoniae are gram whats predominantly?
What is pneumocystis jiroveci
protozoa that can cause pneumonia in immune compromised peeps
4 ways organisms reach the lung
aspiration of URT secretions
aspiration of particles via gastric content etc.
Aetiology of infective pneumonia happens 3 ways
URT flora or in immunocompromised =strep, haemophilus, staph au
enteric: ecoli, pseudomonas
extraneous pathogens: legionella, TB
What the most common enteric saprophyte you see in hospital?
Two kinds of inflammation in infective pneumonia
Alveolar inflam caused by what bugs?
bacterial: strep, staph, haemophlus, gram negs
interstitial inflamm caused by what?
virus/bacterial = atypical pneumonia
where is pus in alveolar inflamm?
in the alveoli
Is there pus in the alveoli with interstitial inflamm?
Describe lung consolidation. How is it caused?
firm and solid
describe consolidation for bronchopneumonia
describe consolidation for lobar pneumonia
whole lobe affected
can you get acute bronchopneumonia in more than one lobe?
Can you tell what bacteria is infecting based on lobar vs. bronchopneumonia?
Do you see more lobar or bronchopneumonia these days?
bronchopneumonia, lobar was more pre-antibiotic era
What determines the pattern of consolidation from a pneumonia bug?
lots of things: patient defenses, virulence of organism
What causes 90% of lobar pneumonias?
What can be present in sputum of lobar pneumonia
gram positive diplococci
4 stages of lobar pneumonia
What happens in lobar pneumonia congestion?
alveoli get filled with crap, lots of neutrophil and dead bugs
Why is red hepatization in lobar pneumonia red?
hemorrhage as RBCs are squeezed out of epithelial cells due to congested capillaries
Why is grey hepatization grey?
alveoli full of macrophages, neutrophils and fibrin
What age group(s) does acute bronchopneumonia occur?
young or old
is acute bronchopneumonia usually primary?
usually secondary to COPD, heart failure, cancer, CF
Can you get acute bronchopneumonia as a secondary infection after a what?
Bronchiole has no what?
inflammation of pleura
what causes lung abcesses? 4 things
staph, klebsiella, pseudomonas
Interstitial inflammation pneumonia commonly caused by what 2 things?
bacterial (atypical pneumonia)
Other non-infection causes of Interstitial inflammation pneumonia? 3 things
drugs, immune diseases, radiation
Pathology of Interstitial inflammation pneumonia? 2 things
alveolar septa inflammed and infiltrated
Are there alveolar neutrophils in Interstitial inflammation pneumonia?
consolidation in Interstitial inflammation pneumonia?
How would you describe macroscopically Interstitial inflammation pneumonia lung?
wet, dark, heavy
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, coxiella burnetti, legionella, chlamydia are bacterial causes for what?
Patient comes in with: systemic symptoms, malaise, aches, pains, headaches, dry non-productive cough and ambulatory with extensive radiological signs. what could it be?
TB is defined as?
chronic granulomatous pneumonia due to infection with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Where does a lot of the damage come from in TB?
secondary infection cause the immune system goes berserker
in primary TB where is the usual area of inflamm?
periphery of lungs, heals up, lies dormant
Gohn focus plus nodes =
Size of granulomas
what does epithelioid mean?
Where do you find multinucleated giant cells?
TB is an example of what kind of hypersensitivity? what promotes formation of granulomas?
Gohn focus is made of what?
granulomatous inflammation and caseation
What on the lung is indicative of secondary TB?
secondary TB usually involved what kind of pneumonia? lobar or bronchopneumonia?
where do you normally get secondary TB damage on the lungs?
apical areas of upper lobes
What is haemoptysis when does it occur?
erosion of blood vessels in secondary TB
How would TB spread via airways?
erosion into the bronchial tree leading to cavitation/spread
TB clinical features
insidious onset, weight loss, malaise, fevers, night sweats, haemoptysis, chronic cough
Mycobacterium tuberculosis are cocci, bacilli or spirilli?
What is Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall made of?
what does acid fast mean for Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
retains dyes even after attempts at decolourisation with acid
what stain for Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
Ways Mycobacterium tuberculosis can spread?
How do you get Miliary TB?
spread in blood stream
Can you get miliary TB in primary TB?
yes, both primary and secondary
What organs are affected by miliary TB?
2 organs in single organ TB are?
what's potts disease?
When do you get single organ TB?
secondary TB with caseation