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Flashcards in Lung Infections Deck (68):
0

Bacteria cause ____% of pneumonia cases?

85%

1

What kind of pneumonia can be present in immunocompromised patients?

fungi and protozoa

2

Clinical features of pneumonia? 5 things

fever/chills
unrelenting cough
green/yellow sputum
angina
impaired gas exchange

3

50% of community acquired lung infections are what organism?

strep pneumoniae

4

Hospital pneumoniae are gram whats predominantly?

gram negative

5

What is pneumocystis jiroveci

protozoa that can cause pneumonia in immune compromised peeps

6

4 ways organisms reach the lung

inhalation
aspiration of URT secretions
aspiration of particles via gastric content etc.
haematogenous spread

7

Aetiology of infective pneumonia happens 3 ways

URT flora or in immunocompromised =strep, haemophilus, staph au
enteric: ecoli, pseudomonas
extraneous pathogens: legionella, TB

8

What the most common enteric saprophyte you see in hospital?

pseudomonas

9

Two kinds of inflammation in infective pneumonia

alveolar
interstitial

10

Alveolar inflam caused by what bugs?

bacterial: strep, staph, haemophlus, gram negs

11

interstitial inflamm caused by what?

virus/bacterial = atypical pneumonia
mycoplasma pneumoniae

12

where is pus in alveolar inflamm?

in the alveoli

13

Is there pus in the alveoli with interstitial inflamm?

Nope

14

Describe lung consolidation. How is it caused?

firm and solid

15

describe consolidation for bronchopneumonia

patchy

16

describe consolidation for lobar pneumonia

whole lobe affected

17

can you get acute bronchopneumonia in more than one lobe?

yes

18

Can you tell what bacteria is infecting based on lobar vs. bronchopneumonia?

Nope

19

Do you see more lobar or bronchopneumonia these days?

bronchopneumonia, lobar was more pre-antibiotic era

20

What determines the pattern of consolidation from a pneumonia bug?

lots of things: patient defenses, virulence of organism

21

What causes 90% of lobar pneumonias?

streptococcus

22

What can be present in sputum of lobar pneumonia

gram positive diplococci

23

4 stages of lobar pneumonia

congestion
red hepatization
gray hepatization
resolution

24

What happens in lobar pneumonia congestion?

alveoli get filled with crap, lots of neutrophil and dead bugs

25

Why is red hepatization in lobar pneumonia red?

hemorrhage as RBCs are squeezed out of epithelial cells due to congested capillaries

26

Why is grey hepatization grey?

alveoli full of macrophages, neutrophils and fibrin

27

What age group(s) does acute bronchopneumonia occur?

young or old

28

is acute bronchopneumonia usually primary?

usually secondary to COPD, heart failure, cancer, CF

29

Can you get acute bronchopneumonia as a secondary infection after a what?

viral URTI

30

Bronchiole has no what?

cartilage

31

What's pleurasy?

inflammation of pleura

32

what causes lung abcesses? 4 things

staph, klebsiella, pseudomonas
aspiration
tumours
septic emboli

33

Interstitial inflammation pneumonia commonly caused by what 2 things?

bacterial (atypical pneumonia)
viral

34

Other non-infection causes of Interstitial inflammation pneumonia? 3 things

drugs, immune diseases, radiation

35

Pathology of Interstitial inflammation pneumonia? 2 things

alveolar septa inflammed and infiltrated
bronchiolitis

36

Are there alveolar neutrophils in Interstitial inflammation pneumonia?

Nope

37

consolidation in Interstitial inflammation pneumonia?

Nope

38

How would you describe macroscopically Interstitial inflammation pneumonia lung?

wet, dark, heavy

39

Mycoplasma pneumoniae, coxiella burnetti, legionella, chlamydia are bacterial causes for what?

atypical pneumonia

40

Patient comes in with: systemic symptoms, malaise, aches, pains, headaches, dry non-productive cough and ambulatory with extensive radiological signs. what could it be?

atypical pneumonia

41

TB is defined as?

chronic granulomatous pneumonia due to infection with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

42

Where does a lot of the damage come from in TB?

secondary infection cause the immune system goes berserker

43

in primary TB where is the usual area of inflamm?

periphery of lungs, heals up, lies dormant

44

Gohn focus plus nodes =

Gohn complex

45

Size of granulomas

2mm!

46

what does epithelioid mean?

rounded

47

Where do you find multinucleated giant cells?

in granulomas

48

TB is an example of what kind of hypersensitivity? what promotes formation of granulomas?

Type IV

49

Gohn focus is made of what?

granulomatous inflammation and caseation

50

What on the lung is indicative of secondary TB?

cavitation

51

secondary TB usually involved what kind of pneumonia? lobar or bronchopneumonia?

lobar

52

where do you normally get secondary TB damage on the lungs?

apical areas of upper lobes

53

What is haemoptysis when does it occur?

erosion of blood vessels in secondary TB

54

How would TB spread via airways?

erosion into the bronchial tree leading to cavitation/spread

55

TB clinical features

insidious onset, weight loss, malaise, fevers, night sweats, haemoptysis, chronic cough

56

Mycobacterium tuberculosis are cocci, bacilli or spirilli?

bacilli

57

What is Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall made of?

mycolic acid

58

what does acid fast mean for Mycobacterium tuberculosis?

retains dyes even after attempts at decolourisation with acid

59

what stain for Mycobacterium tuberculosis?

Ziehl-Neelson

60

Ways Mycobacterium tuberculosis can spread?

lymph

61

How do you get Miliary TB?

spread in blood stream

62

Can you get miliary TB in primary TB?

yes, both primary and secondary

63

What organs are affected by miliary TB?

liver
spleen
bone marrow
brain

64

2 organs in single organ TB are?

spine
urogenital tract

65

what's potts disease?

spine TB

66

When do you get single organ TB?

secondary TB with caseation

67

abcesses in atypical pneumonia?

Nope.