Flashcards in Neoplasia 3 Deck (45)
in Dx: If malignant, think
What causes weight loss and anorexia in tumours?
late stage make TNF-A and IL-1, increases metabolism
clinical presentation of lung tumour
What are paraneoplastic effects?
side effects of cancers such as endocrine, immunological (rashes), clubbing, vascular
What kinds of paraneoplastic effects in lung cancer?
cushings, inapropriate ADH, ACTH
Are tumour markers used in dx?
not really, more in follow up because it's not specific or elevated in every case
Why do x-rays and CTs besides for Dx?
staging and follow-up
Another way to investigate lung tumours besides radiology?
Tissue sampling cytology is what?
fine need aspiration, only look at cells
Histopathology in tissue sampling is:
H&E, stains, immunohistochemistry
What kind of sample needed for histopathology of neoplasia?
full piece of tissue
Why do immunohistochemistry anyways?
helps distinguish primary from metastatic lesions
Once diagnosis of malignancy is made, what other info?
Want to gather lots of info on tumours for what?
4 main types of lung carcinomas:
squamous cell carcinoma
lung cancer is one of most common in the world: Incidence?
More males of females lung cancer?
average age of lung cancer Dx?
3 big predisposing factors for lung cancer
a non smoker is most likely to get which cancer?
squamous cell carcinoma
What pathogenesis are the following part of?
Goblet Cell hyperplasia
reserve cell hyperplasia
carcinoma in situ
Pathogenesis of Small cell carcinoma in lung
Does SCC form cavities?
yes, has necrotic core
What paraneoplastic effects does SCC predispose you to?
Adenocarcinomas are more proximal or peripheral?
SCC are more proximal or peripheral bronchi?
What is you can't determine tumour type on H&E?
other stains available
CAM5.2 (liver cells stain, but not the tumour)
Which are more aggressive? poorly differentiated or well differentiated?
poorly differentiated ones will mess you up
What the gleason score for?
prostate cancer grading
what is the modified bloom and richarson for?
breast ca grading
what is stage of a cancer?
progression of malignancy
What is TMN system? what is the acronym stand for?
For staging tumours
T= primary tumour
N= lymph node involvement
M= distant metastases
What does 'X' mean in staging?
unknown or cannot be assessed
TNM is universal for all organs?
Nope. Different parameters for different organs!
eg. of predictive factors in breast cancer?
oestrogen and progesterone receptors
5 main treatments for cancer
other(immuno, bone marrow)
targeted therapy is different how for cancer?
less harmful to normal cells, more specific for tumour oncoproteins
Two main categories for cancer targeted therapy:
1. small molecules (inhibit growth factors/tyrosine kinase)
2. monoclonal antibodies that target proteins/receptors
2 most important mutations in lung carcinoma?
What's so significant about EGFR?
significant rate of mutations in young non/light smoking female asians with low-stage disease
What does EGFR tyrosine kinase doman increase downstream?
hyperactivation of signaling pathways leading to abnormal proliferation
How to treat EGFR mutations?
target therapies like Gefitinib and Erlotinib inhibit EGFR
Can all lung carcinomas be treated with targeted therapies?
No, tumour need to be tested, could be resistant
What is cachexia
wasting syndrome due to loss of appetite and the body just not processing nutrition appropriately
3 ways to die from cancer
2. secondary infection
3. damage to vital organ by primary/secondary tumours