Flashcards in Radiology+Social determinants Deck (35):
x-rays convert silver halide crystals to what?
how many x-rays get through an object
order the following in least to most e-dense: contrast agents, soft tissue, calcium, fat, air, metal
Can you distinguish chambers of the heart? why?
Can't cause same e-densities
PA CXR, heart closer to what?
what's so great about being erect during a PA CXR?
can determine pleural fluid of blood flow distribution in lungs
What do you find in the superior mediastinum?6 things
SVC and vessels
Whats in the anterior mediastinum? 3 things
what's in the middle/pericardium?
what's in the posterior mediastinum?
What happens when you have fluid in the pleural spaces on CXR?
fluid sinks to bases, air rises to apices
CXR by itself is good enough?
need to relate to clinical findings
CT scan doesn't use film, what does it use?
What kind of contrast agent used in CT?
iodine or barium
what are Hounsfield Units?
Grey Scale numerical for anatomical parts
T/F CT has poorer spatial resolution than plain X-rays?
What's the number one things that make CT better than x-rays?
better contrast resolution
Can you ever see the aortic root/valve, pulmonary trunk, L atrium, IVC, R pulmonary artery, stomach on CXR?
Nope. But you can on CT! Even more so with contrast dye
Post processing to view the image can be done 3 ways:
3D virtual model
You can view lungs vs. bones vs. heart with a touch of a button by changing these two things:
Brightness and Contrast
2 cons for CT:
a stressful bad job
out of work
out of work.
How many TB deaths per year in the world?
How does TB affect women epidemiologically?
top 3 causes of death in women in develping world
17-18th century, increase TB associated with rapid what?
urbanisation (crowded, dense, nutrition)
What is DOTS in terms of TB?
Directly observed treatment short course
WHO's TB strategy had a great biomedical approach but was lacking something:
addressing population vulnerabilities/underlying factors
increase in TB in eastern europe in the 90s explained by:
failure of health services
How is TB risk affected by social-economic gradient?
richer = less TB
poorer = more TB
malnutrition as a risk factor for TB is not only not enough food:
Draw me a causal pathway for TB using 3 elements discussed
Poverty>proximate factors>TB risk
direct markers of poverty include 2 things:
indoor air pollution
Smoking prevalence is higher where?
lower SES groups
Poverty ill health cycle, explain
start off poor: hunger, malnutrition, no shelter, illiteracy, no sanitation leads to ill-health then leads to loss of income/labour which leads back to poverty.