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Flashcards in Radiology+Social determinants Deck (35):
0

x-rays convert silver halide crystals to what?

silver (black)

1

e-densities are?

how many x-rays get through an object

2

order the following in least to most e-dense: contrast agents, soft tissue, calcium, fat, air, metal

air, fat,

3

Can you distinguish chambers of the heart? why?

Can't cause same e-densities

4

PA CXR, heart closer to what?

film

5

what's so great about being erect during a PA CXR?

can determine pleural fluid of blood flow distribution in lungs

6

What do you find in the superior mediastinum?6 things

aortic arch
SVC and vessels
oesophagus
trachea
vagus
lymph nodes

7

Whats in the anterior mediastinum? 3 things

fat
thymus
lymph nodes

8

what's in the middle/pericardium?

heart
great vessels
phrenic nerves
lymph nodes

9

what's in the posterior mediastinum?

oesophagus,
descending aorta
azygous vein
thoracic duct
lymph nodes

10

What happens when you have fluid in the pleural spaces on CXR?

fluid sinks to bases, air rises to apices

11

CXR by itself is good enough?

need to relate to clinical findings

12

CT scan doesn't use film, what does it use?

radiation detector

13

What kind of contrast agent used in CT?

iodine or barium

14

what are Hounsfield Units?

Grey Scale numerical for anatomical parts

15

T/F CT has poorer spatial resolution than plain X-rays?

True!

16

What's the number one things that make CT better than x-rays?

better contrast resolution

17

Can you ever see the aortic root/valve, pulmonary trunk, L atrium, IVC, R pulmonary artery, stomach on CXR?

Nope. But you can on CT! Even more so with contrast dye

18

Post processing to view the image can be done 3 ways:

different planes
windows
3D virtual model

19

You can view lungs vs. bones vs. heart with a touch of a button by changing these two things:

Brightness and Contrast

21

2 cons for CT:

ionizing radiation
expensive

22

Choose one:
a stressful bad job
or
out of work

out of work.

23

How many TB deaths per year in the world?

1.4 million

24

How does TB affect women epidemiologically?

top 3 causes of death in women in develping world

25

17-18th century, increase TB associated with rapid what?

industrialization
urbanisation (crowded, dense, nutrition)

26

What is DOTS in terms of TB?

Directly observed treatment short course

27

WHO's TB strategy had a great biomedical approach but was lacking something:

addressing population vulnerabilities/underlying factors

28

increase in TB in eastern europe in the 90s explained by:

economic decline
failure of health services
alcoholism
poor nutrition

29

How is TB risk affected by social-economic gradient?

richer = less TB
poorer = more TB

30

malnutrition as a risk factor for TB is not only not enough food:

obesity

31

Draw me a causal pathway for TB using 3 elements discussed

Poverty>proximate factors>TB risk

32

direct markers of poverty include 2 things:

malnutrition
indoor air pollution

33

Smoking prevalence is higher where?

lower SES groups

34

Poverty ill health cycle, explain

start off poor: hunger, malnutrition, no shelter, illiteracy, no sanitation leads to ill-health then leads to loss of income/labour which leads back to poverty.

35

TB treatment trifecta for developing world?

new medical technologies
collaboration between TB and other health programs
multisectoral approaches for improving overall SES