NST Chap 23 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in NST Chap 23 Deck (36):
1

Psychologist use the term bounded rationality to describe the actual operating state of the

mind

2

Cognitive bias, the unconscious tendency to allow an initial reference point to distort our estimate, even when the initial reference point is completely arbitrary, is called

Anchoring

3

Within cognitive bias the most relevant bias is

Confirmation

4

Cognitive bias, the tendency to judge past events as easily predictable when in fact they were not easily for seen is called

Hindsight

5

Within cognitive bias, when we attribute more credit to ourselves for group or collaborative outcome than an outside party making an unbiased assessment would is called

Egocentrism

6

We use frameworks and shortcuts to simplify our understanding of a complex world; the use of the framework that helps us process information quickly and efficiently is known as

Mental frameS

7

Within prospect theory, the theory that helps explain our tendency to escalate commitment based on a sunk cost instead of making rational valuation based on how things exist today is the

Prospect theory

8

When decision makers choose courses of action they are not evaluating a whole series of alternatives and are not selecting solutions based on objective analysis they are using what

Intuition

9

When decision makers are operating in challenging or ambiguous situation, highly experienced professionals often have relation to the events called

Intuition

10

The number of steps the simple process used for communicating intuitive decision, seeking feedback, and conveying intent is

5

11

Very powerful decision making tools, often the greatest innovative breakthrough occur when analogies from one field or domain are applied to another, is termed as

Analogies

12

The critical thinking trap inherent in the use of analogy is that they can lead us to focus on the similarity between events and downplay important what

DifferenceS

13

The objective technique to clearly separate fact from assumption and then probe your presumptions carefully are known as

Takeaways

14

The type of wisdom that holds that groups make better decisions than individuals because they draw from a diverse base of talent and experience is called

Conventional

15

Within wisdom of groups, to be effective groups of non-experts must be decentralized and

Contain members who are independent

16

When tremendous pressure, within the team for conformity and a desire for unanimity drive decision-making at the expense of true critical thinking it is known as

Group think

17

Within groups, especially long-standing groups, individuals often self censor based on a desire to avoid becoming

Ostracized and marginalized

18

A key aspect of managing the decision process is to stimulate

Cognitive conflict

19

Within take-away, decision makers must ensure that they are not structuring their decision process to minimize conflict at the expense of

Critical Thinking

20

Within inability to decide, indecision resulting from dysfunctional patterns of behavior manifest itself as one of the three

Organizational cultures

21

Within inability to decide, one of the harmful organizational cultures differentiates between the use of a 'devils advocate' and the culture of

No

22

Within inability to decide, one of the harmful organizational cultures is that decision makers work to gather as much information as possible , so much so that they become trapped in 'analysis paralysis' is the culture of

Maybe

23

The process by which a decision is made significantly influences implementation and follow through of the

Solution

24

Within take away, procedural legitimacy in decision making occurs when the decision process is perceived to be in line with an organization's socially accepted norms and

Desired behavior

25

Within take away, procedural legitimacy in decision-making occurs when the decision process is perceived to be in line with an organization's socially accepted norms and

Desired behavior
|

26

Within take away, in order to create an organizational culture of decision legitimacy, leaders can explain the decision rationale once made, express appreciation for everyone's participation and how alternative inputs contribute to the process, and

Separate advocacy from analysis.

27

Within accidents and normalizing deviance within the USAF, like any other organization, decisions made in high-complex, tightly integrated environments often have

Unanticipated consequences

28

The theory that rests upon the assumption that in any high complex high risk organizational structure decision failures are unavoidable is

Normal accident theory

29

The gradual acceptance of unexpected events and risk as a normal part of the operating environment is

Normalizing deviance

30

The general acceptance of lower standards of performance is

Normalizing deviance

31

Within practical drift and ambiguity within large organizations, sub-unit leaders at all levels make decisions to maximize

Efficiency

32

Leaders must ensure that Airmen be aware of how their decisions at the local level tie in with overall organizational goals

Standards and expectations

33

Leaders must use their awareness of organizational goals and standards to monitor

Practical drift

34

The challenge for Airmen of all ranks is that ambiguous threats do not trigger

Organizational responses

35

Within take away, Airmen in positions of responsibility must work to temper 'practical drift' and create a culture where critical thinking is applied to

Ambiguous Threats

36

Within take away, to further problems associated with 'practical drift', leaders can also avoid 'bandaid ' approaches to small problems, fix the root cause across the system, and understand the 'why' behind

Local standards