Nutrients Flashcards Preview

Uncategorized > Nutrients > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrients Deck (34):
1

antioxidants

  • prevent the oxidation of other molecules
  • protect against free radicals, which cause cellular mutation
  • found in fruits, vegetables, sesame seeds, etc.

2

beta-carotene

  • a terpenoid
  • an inactive form of vitamin A
  • found in carrots, pumpkins, spinach, and sweet potatoes

7

calcium

  • promotes bone density and proper blood clotting
  • combats rickets
  • found in dairy products, seaweeds, almonds, sesame, quinoa, spinach, and okra

8

What is a calorie?

a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius

8

carbohydrate

  • organic compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  • good sources include: breads, pastas, beans, potatoes, bran, and rice
  • easy to digest and requires minimal water intake

9

high fructose corn syrup

  • a sugar substitute
  • found in many processed foods like sodas, salad dressings, and candy
  • overconsumption may cause obesity and diabetes

11

magnesium

  • combats development of asthma and osteoporosis (brittle bones)
  • found in bran, buckwheat flour, barley, soybeans, and pumpkin seeds

13

cholesterol

  • steroid metabolite
  • establishes appropriate membrane permeability and fluidity
  • found in cell membranes
  • found in eggs, cheese, shrimp, beef, pork, and poultry

14

dietary fiber

  • impacts nutrient and chemical absorption
  • promotes a healthy gastrointestinal tract
  • found in bran, legumes, plums, prunes, and apples

20

iodine

  • promotes a healthy immune system and salivary and oral health
  • combats goiter and hypothyroidism
  • found in iodized salt, seafood, seaweeds, and produce grown in iodine-rich soil

21

iron

  • conducts oxygen transfer in the form of hemoglobin
  • found in lentils, red meat, poultry, beans, leafy vegetables, sesame seeds, and tofu

25

monounsaturated fat

  • one-bond molecule
  • promotes insulin resistance
  • found in olive oil, nuts, avocados, and tea seed oil

26

omega-3 fatty acid

  • type of polyunsaturated fat
  • helps to reduce blood pressure
  • found in fish, fish oil, flax seed, and eggs

28

phosphorus

  • regulates enzyme activity/transport and storage of cell compounds
  • a component of teeth, bones, and nucleic acids
  • high levels found in baking powder and mollusks

29

vitamin B12

  • cyanocobalamin
  • soluble in water
  • combats megaloblastic anemia
  • recommended daily value is 2.4μg
  • found in fish, eggs, and milk

30

polyunsaturated fat

  • multi-bonded molecule
  • protects against cardiovascular disease through promotion of membrane fluidity
  • found in fish, peanut butter, sunflower seeds, etc.

31

potassium

  • important to neural and osmotic (water diffusion) functions
  • potassium chloride is an alternative to table salt as it reduces risk of hyper-tension due to sodium
  • found in tomatoes, potatoes, bananas, and oranges

33

protein

  • enzymes digested into amino acid
  • helps generate energy and build muscle
  • naturally found in meats, legumes, nuts, grains, and eggs

38

saturated fat

  • a molecule is saturated with hydrogen bonds
  • the Centers for Disease Control and the American Heart Association recommend reducing intake to combat heart disease
  • found in dairy products, meat products, coconut oil, and chocolate

41

sodium

  • used for taste and food preservation
  • daily requirement is 500 mg
  • excessive intake can contribute to high blood pressure

46

trans fats

  • unsaturated fat with trans-isomer fatty acid
  • used for a higher melting point in baking and a longer shelf life in processed food
  • increases risk of coronary heart disease
  • found naturally in animal products but also generated in partially hydrogenated oil

47

vitamin A

  • retinol
  • soluble in fat
  • combats night-blindness and keratomalacia (dry cornea)
  • recommended daily value is 900μg
  • found in dairy products, eggs, poultry, liver, and fish

48

vitamin B1

  • thiamine
  • soluble in water
  • combats beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
  • recommended daily value is 1.2 mg
  • found in yeast, pork, sesame seeds, and cereals

48

vitamin B2

  • riboflavin
  • water soluble
  • combats ariboflavinosis (scaly skin, inflammation of mucous membranes)
  • recommended daily value is 1.3 mg
  • found in bananas, okra, milk, eggs, and fish

49

vitamin B3

  • niacin
  • water soluble
  • combats pellagra (diarrhea, skin lesions)
  • recommended daily value is 16 mg
  • found in liver, poultry, beef, fish, and cereals

49

vitamin B5

  • pantothenic acid
  • soluble in water
  • daily recommended value is 5 mg
  • found in meat, broccoli, and avocado

50

vitamin B6

  • pyridoxine
  • soluble in water
  • combats anemia and peripheral neuropathy (numbness and nerve pain)
  • recommended daily value is 1.3-1.7 mg
  • found in grains, vegetables, and nuts

51

vitamin B7

  • biotin
  • soluble in water
  • small amount produced by intestinal bacteria
  • combats dermatitis and enteritis (inflammation of the small intestines)
  • recommended daily value is 30μg
  • found in liver, egg yolk, cereals, nuts, and legumes

51

vitamin B9

  • folic acid
  • soluble in water
  • combats neural tube and other birth defects
  • recommended daily value is 400μg
  • found in leafy vegetables, beans, and sunflower seeds

52

vitamin C

  • ascorbic acid
  • soluble in water
  • combats scurvy
  • recommended daily value is 90 mg
  • found in fruits and vegetables

53

vitamin D

  • ergocalciferol
  • soluble in fat
  • combats rickets and osteomalacia (soft bones)
  • recommended daily value is 5-10μg
  • found in fish, liver, and dairy products (also produced through sunlight hitting the skin)

53

vitamin E

  • tocopherols
  • soluble in fat
  • combats hemolytic anemia
  • recommended daily value is 15 mg
  • found in nuts, grains, and sesame seeds

54

vitamin K

  • phylloquinone
  • soluble in fat
  • combats bleeding diathesis
  • recommended daily value is 120μg
  • produced by intestinal bacteria

55

zinc

  • catalyst in enzymatic reactions
  • found in lamb, beef, and liver