Nutrition Flashcards Preview

Alisha's NPLEX II Review > Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (26)
Loading flashcards...
1

Indications and toxic dose of vitamin A

Indicated for skin, infections, eye stuff. Beta-carotene can be used for dementia.

Low-temperate cooking (steaming) decreases availability. High-temperature cooking (boiling) increases it.

>10,000IU/day is teratogenic and can cause osteoporosis
>25,000IU/day is TOXIC and causes hepatotoxicity

2

Tell me about vitamin B1 and B2.

B1: requires Mg+ to function. Used to make ATP. Deficiency BeriBeri, Wernicke's Encephalopathy

B2: treatment for migraines, PD, skin, glossitis

3

Vitamin B3

Used to make ATP and in fat, cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism. Tryptophan -> niacin. Tx for: hypercholesterolemia, IHD, skin, AD, ADHD, DM1. Can cause flushing.

Deficiency -> pellagra (4 Ds: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and death)

>3g/day -> TOXIC

4

Which vitamins can be toxic in large doses?

B3, B6, B9, choline, ADEK

Vitamin A: >10,000IU/day is teratogenic and can cause osteoporosis
>25,000IU/day is TOXIC and causes hepatotoxicity
B3: >3g/day
B6: >500mg NEUROTOXIC
B9: >10mg/day: TOXIC
Choline: >20g
Carnitine >3g/day
Vitamin C >4g=TOXIC (must test for G6PD before giving high dose or -> hemolysis)
Vitamin D >40,00IU = TOXIC.
Vitamin E >1200IU possibly TOXIC

5

Vitamin B5

COA component. For skin issues.

Deficiency: ulcers, weakness, paresthesias

6

Vitamin B6

Used in protein metabolism and glycolysis, neurotransmission. Tx for CAD, IHD, skin, neurological, cognition, pregnancy.

Deficiency: glossitis, chelitis, increased homocysteine (freezing food decreases bioavailability)

>500mg NEUROTOXIC

7

Vitamin B7

CH, lipid metabolism. *produced by the microbiome*. For skin, nails, DM.

Deficiency caused by eating *raw* egg whites, anticonvulsant drugs, and antibiotics.

Only a few food sources: peanuts, mushrooms

8

Which vitamins can be produced by the microbiome?

B7, B12, VK

9

Vitamin B12

Tx for: IHD, neuro, skin, psych. EtOH decreases absorption (so does Metformin). High doses can result in acne.

10

Choline

Treatment for liver dz, increased homocysteine, hyperthyroidism, and bipolar disease.

TOXIC > 20g (NV etc)

11

Vitamin C

Needed for synthesis of collagen and carnitine. Tx: HTN, infxn, allergies, DM, exercise asthma, URIs in people in close quarters (i.e. the army barracks).

Deficiency-> scurvy.

>4g=TOXIC diarrhea, ARF, hemolysis (in G6PD) and rebound scurvy

12

Vitamin D

Activated in the liver and kidneys. Needed for bones, regulates Ca+, Ph-. Stored in fat, but decreased bioavailability in obesity.

Deficiency -> rickets
>40,00IU = TOXIC. Causes hypercalcemia and calciuria, renal stones, NV

13

These conditions are deficiencies of what?
Wernicke
Beriberi
Pellagra
Scurvy
Rickets
Hyperhomocysteinemia
Megaloblastic anemia

Wernicke, Beriberi : B1
Pellagra: B3 (4Ds)
Scurvy: VC
Rickets: VD
Megaloblastic anemia: B9, B12
Hyperhomocysteinemia: B6

14

Vitamin E

Research says not helpful in CAD.

May help with skin, menstruation (PMS), blood, neuro, MSK

People with fat malabsorption -> risk for deficiency. Lost during cooking.

>1200IU possibly TOXIC

15

Vitamin K

Treatment for CA, atherosclerosis, liver disease.

Deficiency: bleeding, osteoporosis

TOXICITY: jaundice, hemolytic anemia

Lab test: prothrombin time (PT). Assesses external coagulation pathway. Also includes INR.

Normal PT: 11-13.5 seconds
Normal INR: 0.8-1.1

16

Vitamin B9

prevents stroke by lowering homocysteine. Used in the tx of migraine, skin, CVD, psych, *cervical dysplasia.*

Deficiency: megaloblastic anemia. OCPs, sulfa antibiotics, and aspirin inhibit absorption.

>10mg/day: TOXIC

17

Boron

increases estrogen's effect on bone. Can prevent osteoporosis and CVD

18

Methionine

Precursor to cysteine.

Needed for carnitine and SAMe synthesis.

Tx for PD, UTIs

19

Taurine

Cysteine with B6-> taurine

NT, supports the retina. May be depleted in chemotherapy.

20

What is the different between acetyl-L-carnitine and (levo)carnitine?

Acetyl-L-carnitine: similar to acetylCOA

Carnitine/levocarnitine: fat shuttle.

>3g/day is TOXIC

21

Ubiquinone (CoQ10)

Give to people on statins
Preserves VC, VE

22

What should you always supplement with in people on statin drugs?

CoQ10

23

DMAE

Precursor to acetylcholine

24

What the supplements which are precursors to acetylcholine and acetyl-COA?

DMAE

B5 is part of COA (acetyl-COA)

25

Flavinoids?

Treatment for venous insufficiency, retinal problems, inflammation, cancer prevention.

Found in black tea, but this can increase BP, so take care in HTN

Heat-resistant; ok to cook

26

PABA

Intermediate in folic acid synthesis. Treatment for skin issues, antifibrotic (scleroderma), ingredient in sunscreen,

Don't use with sulfa antibiotics