Pharmacology: cardio, heme, MSK, immune Flashcards Preview

Alisha's NPLEX II Review > Pharmacology: cardio, heme, MSK, immune > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology: cardio, heme, MSK, immune Deck (33)
Loading flashcards...
1

NSAID types

Ibuprofen ect: reversible COX inhibition for the life of the enzyme (3 days)

Aspirin: irreversible COX inhibition (suicide inhibition). Block TX2 in platelets diminishing aggregations for the life of the platelets (8-9 days)

Acetominophen: reduces, not blocks, COX. COX must be oxidized to function. But works only in the brain, reducing pain but not inflammation. Also has endocannabinoid activity.

Naproxen: Aleve. Avoid in third trimester. Many interactions- SSRIs, lithium, methotrexate, etc

Indomethacin: serious drug, don't use for aches & pains. Used for arthritites, HAs, to close PDA, to stop labor, to decrease amniotic fluid.

Ketorolac: injectable. Used for moderate-severe pain <5 days (can cause kidney damage with long-term use). Avoid with probenecid, pentoxyphilline, or use with chemo/radiation.

Diclofenac: for gout, PMS, arthritides, kidney stones. Topically for actinic keratosis.

2

Clopidogrel

Anticoagulant. Blocks an ADP receptor on platelets, decreasing platelet aggregation.

3

Heparin

Inactivates thrombin, factor Xa, and other proteases.

Half-life of an hour. Low-molecular weight heparin has a half-life of 4 hours.

IV/subQ only. IM will cause hematomas.

4

Warfarin

Vitamin K antagonist.
Prevents synthesis of VK-dependent clotting factors (2, 7 9, 10) and protein C and protein S

5

Enoxaparin

Blocks clotting factors Xa

6

Dabigatron

Used post-surgery to prevents clots. Prevents DVT, strokes.

Blocks thrombin

7

Rivaroxaban

Blocks factor Xa

8

Alprostadil

Vasodilator for ED, injected into the penis

9

Desmopressin

Synthetic ADH; works as an antidiuretic. Works on aquaporin channels in the kidney.

Used to treat von Willebrand, disease, hemophilia A, diabetes insipidus and bed wetting

10

Epoetin alfa

Synthetic EPO, stimulate RBC production. Used to treat anemia from chemo.

11

Pentoxyphilline

PDE-I, nonselective.

Used for intermittent claudication from PAD and hemorrhoids

12

Clozapine vs clonazepam

Clozapine: atypical antipsychotic
Clonazepam: benzo for panic disorder

13

Celecoxib

Selective COX-2 inhibiting NSAID.

Also has use in familial polyposis and possible mental illness (bipolar, schizophrenia).

Increased risk of MI and stroke; don't use in anyone at risk.

14

Tramadol

Opioid AND SNRI medication. Oral or injection.

Don't use in pregnancy, small risk of miscarriage.

Goes through 3A4 and 2D6; don't use with antidepressants, other opioids, trazodone, cyclopenzaprine, triptans or ergot, or amphetamines.

15

Meloxicam

NSAID used to treat OA. COX-2 selectivity. Don't use in heart disease.

16

Diazepam

Valium. Benzo used to treat seizures, EtOH withdrawal, panic, eclampsia, and pre-surgery for sedation and to promote memory loss, IE, used before endoscopy.

17

Colchicine

Used to treat gout and Behcet's.

MOA: inhibits microtubules, mitosis, neutrophil migration, mast cell degranulation and ROS formation

SEs: rhabdomyolosis

18

Allopurinol

Xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Gout.

19

Prednisone uses?

Immune suppressant obviously

Also for migraines, hormone-sensitive tumors, and blood cancers (ALL, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's, multiple myeloma)

4x as strong as hydrocortisone

20

Hydrocortisone

Synthetic cortisol! Treatment of choice when someone's adrenals stop making actual cortisol (adrenocorticoid insufficiency).

It is seen as strength of 1.
Dexamethasone = 40x
Prednisone = 4x

21

Methocarbamol

Carbamate drug, MOA not totally understood. Has GABA receptor activity and side effects similar too, but not quite as serious as, benzos and barbiturates.

Used to treat MSK pain and injury.

22

Tizanidine

MOA unclear, used to treat MSK spasms. Probably an alpha-2-agonist (like clonidine).

QT prolongation.
CYP 1A2 inhibitor, many interactions with antibiotics, anti-arrhythmics, HTN meds and levadopa

23

Triamcinolone

Topical steroid

24

Osteoporosis medications

Raloxifine: SERM, prevents OP, increases T in men

Alendronate: bisphosphanate, inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, tx for OP

Calcitonin: inhibits osteoclasts. Used for hypercalcemia and OP. Work against PTH and vitamin D. Increased levels in medullary thyroid cancer (in the parafollicular cells).

Denosumab: human monoclonal antibody. Prevents OP, tx bone mets. RANKL inhibitor- blocks osteoclasts.

25

Red man syndrome can be caused by which antibiotic ?

Vancomycin. Its thrombophlebitis and flushing. Tx: Benadryl

Glycopeptide antibiotic, its in a class all to itself. Its created by a soil bacteria called A. orientalist. Usually given by IV, Staph, MRSA.

26

Which antibiotics are bactericidal vs bacteriostatic?

Bactericidal:
Bactrim (inhibits folate synthesis)
Flouroquinolones (inhibit DNA unwinding)
Penicillins, cephalosporins (cell wall lysis)
Metronidazole (inhibits nucleic acid synthesis)
Nitrofurantoin (builds up in the bladder, breaks DNA)
Rifaximin (binds beta-subunit of RNA polymerase)
Vancomycin

Bacteriostatic:
Tetracyclines, macrolides, lincosamides (bind 30s, inhibit protein synthesis)

27

Which antibiotic increases the risk of C diff colitis by 4x?

Clindamycine

Also: cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones.

Tx: Metronidazole, Vancomycin, or Rifaximin

28

Avoid using bactrim in patients on which drugs?

Anything that spares K+ (ACEI, spironolactone)

Anti-arrhthmics and anything that prolongs QT

Methotrexate

Sulfonylureas (avoid w other sulfa drugs!)

And lots others

29

Nitrofurantoin

Builds up in the bladder and breaks DNA. Bactericidal.

Used for UTIs. Brand name: Macrobid.

30

Tetracycline antibiotics

Doxyxyxline, Minocycline.
Bacteriostatic; binds 30s subunit
Also kills protozoans