Flashcards in Pharmacology: cardio, heme, MSK, immune Deck (33)
Ibuprofen ect: reversible COX inhibition for the life of the enzyme (3 days)
Aspirin: irreversible COX inhibition (suicide inhibition). Block TX2 in platelets diminishing aggregations for the life of the platelets (8-9 days)
Acetominophen: reduces, not blocks, COX. COX must be oxidized to function. But works only in the brain, reducing pain but not inflammation. Also has endocannabinoid activity.
Naproxen: Aleve. Avoid in third trimester. Many interactions- SSRIs, lithium, methotrexate, etc
Indomethacin: serious drug, don't use for aches & pains. Used for arthritites, HAs, to close PDA, to stop labor, to decrease amniotic fluid.
Ketorolac: injectable. Used for moderate-severe pain <5 days (can cause kidney damage with long-term use). Avoid with probenecid, pentoxyphilline, or use with chemo/radiation.
Diclofenac: for gout, PMS, arthritides, kidney stones. Topically for actinic keratosis.
Anticoagulant. Blocks an ADP receptor on platelets, decreasing platelet aggregation.
Inactivates thrombin, factor Xa, and other proteases.
Half-life of an hour. Low-molecular weight heparin has a half-life of 4 hours.
IV/subQ only. IM will cause hematomas.
Vitamin K antagonist.
Prevents synthesis of VK-dependent clotting factors (2, 7 9, 10) and protein C and protein S
Blocks clotting factors Xa
Used post-surgery to prevents clots. Prevents DVT, strokes.
Blocks factor Xa
Vasodilator for ED, injected into the penis
Synthetic ADH; works as an antidiuretic. Works on aquaporin channels in the kidney.
Used to treat von Willebrand, disease, hemophilia A, diabetes insipidus and bed wetting
Synthetic EPO, stimulate RBC production. Used to treat anemia from chemo.
Used for intermittent claudication from PAD and hemorrhoids
Clozapine vs clonazepam
Clozapine: atypical antipsychotic
Clonazepam: benzo for panic disorder
Selective COX-2 inhibiting NSAID.
Also has use in familial polyposis and possible mental illness (bipolar, schizophrenia).
Increased risk of MI and stroke; don't use in anyone at risk.
Opioid AND SNRI medication. Oral or injection.
Don't use in pregnancy, small risk of miscarriage.
Goes through 3A4 and 2D6; don't use with antidepressants, other opioids, trazodone, cyclopenzaprine, triptans or ergot, or amphetamines.
NSAID used to treat OA. COX-2 selectivity. Don't use in heart disease.
Valium. Benzo used to treat seizures, EtOH withdrawal, panic, eclampsia, and pre-surgery for sedation and to promote memory loss, IE, used before endoscopy.
Used to treat gout and Behcet's.
MOA: inhibits microtubules, mitosis, neutrophil migration, mast cell degranulation and ROS formation
Xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Gout.
Immune suppressant obviously
Also for migraines, hormone-sensitive tumors, and blood cancers (ALL, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's, multiple myeloma)
4x as strong as hydrocortisone
Synthetic cortisol! Treatment of choice when someone's adrenals stop making actual cortisol (adrenocorticoid insufficiency).
It is seen as strength of 1.
Dexamethasone = 40x
Prednisone = 4x
Carbamate drug, MOA not totally understood. Has GABA receptor activity and side effects similar too, but not quite as serious as, benzos and barbiturates.
Used to treat MSK pain and injury.
MOA unclear, used to treat MSK spasms. Probably an alpha-2-agonist (like clonidine).
CYP 1A2 inhibitor, many interactions with antibiotics, anti-arrhythmics, HTN meds and levadopa
Raloxifine: SERM, prevents OP, increases T in men
Alendronate: bisphosphanate, inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, tx for OP
Calcitonin: inhibits osteoclasts. Used for hypercalcemia and OP. Work against PTH and vitamin D. Increased levels in medullary thyroid cancer (in the parafollicular cells).
Denosumab: human monoclonal antibody. Prevents OP, tx bone mets. RANKL inhibitor- blocks osteoclasts.
Red man syndrome can be caused by which antibiotic ?
Vancomycin. Its thrombophlebitis and flushing. Tx: Benadryl
Glycopeptide antibiotic, its in a class all to itself. Its created by a soil bacteria called A. orientalist. Usually given by IV, Staph, MRSA.
Which antibiotics are bactericidal vs bacteriostatic?
Bactrim (inhibits folate synthesis)
Flouroquinolones (inhibit DNA unwinding)
Penicillins, cephalosporins (cell wall lysis)
Metronidazole (inhibits nucleic acid synthesis)
Nitrofurantoin (builds up in the bladder, breaks DNA)
Rifaximin (binds beta-subunit of RNA polymerase)
Tetracyclines, macrolides, lincosamides (bind 30s, inhibit protein synthesis)
Which antibiotic increases the risk of C diff colitis by 4x?
Also: cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones.
Tx: Metronidazole, Vancomycin, or Rifaximin
Avoid using bactrim in patients on which drugs?
Anything that spares K+ (ACEI, spironolactone)
Anti-arrhthmics and anything that prolongs QT
Sulfonylureas (avoid w other sulfa drugs!)
And lots others
Builds up in the bladder and breaks DNA. Bactericidal.
Used for UTIs. Brand name: Macrobid.