Nutrition Module 8: Micronutrients Review Flashcards Preview

SMP - MNE Exam 2 > Nutrition Module 8: Micronutrients Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition Module 8: Micronutrients Review Deck (194)
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121

Chromium: sources? 7

1. Brewer's yeast
2. Whole grains
3. Wheat germ
4. Broccoli
5. Nuts
6. Cheese
7. Organ meats

122

Chromium: functions? 2

1. Binds to nuclear receptors to increase the number of initiation sites for RNS synthesis
2. Enhances insulin sensitivity

123

Chromium: deficiency? 2

1. Impaired carb utilization
2. Increased insulin resistance

124

Chromium: toxicity? What kind of chromium?

Chromium picolinate => ROS formation

125

What is a trace element for which deficiency has never been observed?

Arsenic

126

What are trace elements?

Metals needed in very small quantities

127

Which 3 trace elements cause the worse toxicity effects?

1. Iron
2. Copper
3. Selenium

128

Which 3 minerals are stored in bone?

1. Calcium
2. Mg
3. Phosphate

129

Which is more common: copper toxicity or deficiency?

Toxicity

130

What can increase the retention of calcium in bones?

Weight-bearing exercise

131

What does the selenium content of food depend on?

Selenium content of the soil

132

Phosphate: sources? 3

1. Protein-rich foods
2. Processed cheese
3. Soda

133

Which is more of an issue: phosphate deficiency or toxicity?

Toxicity

134

Phosphate: functions? 3

1. Energy metabolism and storage
2. Buffer
3. Anions in bones and teeth

135

For what group of people is phosphate deficiency more common?

Elderly

136

Phosphate: toxicity? 3

1. Reduces intestinal calcium absorption
2. Promotes calcium mobilization from bone
3. Increases renal calcium loss

137

Potassium: deficiency?

1. Muscle cramps
2. Heartbeat irregularity
3. Confusion
4. Loss of appetite

138

Which group of people are most vulnerable to magnesium deficiency?

Elderly

139

Which group of people are most vulnerable to chromium deficiency?

Elderly

140

What are the 6 minerals/trace elements stored as part of metalloproteins?

1. Iron
2. Copper
3. Zinc
4. Iodine
5. Selenium
6. Molybdenum

141

Choline: sources? 4

1. Milk
2. Eggs
3. Peanuts
4. Liver

142

Choline: functions? 5

1. Precursor for phospholipids
2. Precursor for NT ACh
3. Methyl donor via regeneration of homocysteine
4. Membrane signaling
5. Lipid/cholesterol transport/metabolism

143

Choline: deficiency? 2

1. Liver damage
2. Muscle damage

144

Choline: toxicity? 5

1. Hypotension
2. Sweating
3. Diarrhea
4. Fishy body odor
5. Promotion of tumor growth

145

Carotenoids: sources? 5

1. Leafy green vegetables
2. Cantaloupe
3. Tomatoes
4. Sweet potato
5. Carrots

146

Carotenoids: functions? 1

AO

147

Source of AO activity of carotenoids: from pro-vitamin A or no?

BOTH

148

Carotenoids: deficiency? 1

Vitamin A deficiency only when intake of pre-formed vitamin A is inadequate

149

Carotenoids: toxicity?

1. Palms turn orange
2. Supplements cause increased cancer risk in smokers

150

When is choline an essential nutrient?

Pregnancy and 1st year of life