Flashcards in Obesity in Horses Deck (17)
Medical condiiton where excess fat accumulation -> negative affect on health
How is obesity measured in horses?
NOT BMI (accurate weight difficult)
- BCS (geenralised adiposity) or CNS (regional adiposity)
What are the 2 BCS scales? What are optimum scores for each?
- 0-5 with 2.5-3 optimum (use 1/2 scores)
- 1-9 with 5 optimum (use whole scores)
Which areas are emphasised in condition scoring?
Tailhead, back, withers, neck, rib, behind the shoulder
What is the optimum CNS?
Which ponies are usually seen to be obese?
Which animals are most commonly seen to develop obesity?
- draught/cobs/native/welsh ponies
- good doers
- summer more than winter
> underrecognised by owners
Why does adiposity increase in the summer?
- ^POMC from pituitary pars intermedia -> apetite and adipogeneiss
- evolutionary adaptation to get through winter
What adverse effects does chronic adiposity have?
- Insulin resistance (fat releases hormones that inhibit insulin)
- Mild pro-inflammatory state
Give 3 conditions associated with physical presence of excess fat (1*)
- excercise intolerance
- abnormal repro
- mesenteric lipoma (±strangulation)
Give 4 condiitons asscoaited with obesity and IR (2*)
- Hyperlipaemia (stress induced)
- DOD (developmental orthopaedic problems)
Which aspect of obesity causes the greatest risk of laminitis?
- suggeted changes in insulin signalling, inflammaotry cytokines, endothelial dysfucntion
What are the epigenetics implications of obesity?
Pre natal (genes switched off or on during late foetal and early post-natal stages) dependency on maternal diet
> obesity or emaciation
- obese mothers have ^ glucose conc and NEFA -> epigentic changes, possibly permenant (appetite control, neuroendocrine, fuel metabolism and energy partintioning)
- sub-optimum nutrition -> v pancreatic weight and B cells, structual changes -> impaired glucose homeostasis
What must be considered when controlling calorie intake in horses?
- DMI must be maintained
- welfare concerns associated with restricting DMI (sterotypies, colic, ulcers, dental)
How can weight loss be acheived?
> resitrict calorie intake
- grass muzzle
- double net forage
- restirct pasture and feed hay/straw
- soak hay to wash out nutritents
- hang from middle of stable - difficult for horse to get food
- subsitute hay with chaff or unmollassed beet pulp (IF OWNER WANTS TO FEED MEALS - NOT necessary)
> increase energy expenditure
- water and food at opposite ends of pasture
- strip graze (circumferential)
- do not rug
How does ^ energy expenditure -> weight loss?
- promotes glucose uptake and use by skeletal mm. by insulin indepentant route for ~24hrs
- ^ insulin sensitivity
- v inflammation
- v feed intake