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Flashcards in Obesity in Horses Deck (17):
1

Define obesity

Medical condiiton where excess fat accumulation -> negative affect on health

2

How is obesity measured in horses?

NOT BMI (accurate weight difficult)
- BCS (geenralised adiposity) or CNS (regional adiposity)

3

What are the 2 BCS scales? What are optimum scores for each?

- 0-5 with 2.5-3 optimum (use 1/2 scores)
- 1-9 with 5 optimum (use whole scores)

4

Which areas are emphasised in condition scoring?

Tailhead, back, withers, neck, rib, behind the shoulder

5

What is the optimum CNS?

2

6

Which ponies are usually seen to be obese?

Show ponies

7

Which animals are most commonly seen to develop obesity?

- draught/cobs/native/welsh ponies
- good doers
- pleasure/nonridden
- summer more than winter
> underrecognised by owners

8

Why does adiposity increase in the summer?

- ^POMC from pituitary pars intermedia -> apetite and adipogeneiss
- evolutionary adaptation to get through winter

9

What adverse effects does chronic adiposity have?

- Insulin resistance (fat releases hormones that inhibit insulin)
- Mild pro-inflammatory state

10

Give 3 conditions associated with physical presence of excess fat (1*)

- excercise intolerance
- abnormal repro
- mesenteric lipoma (±strangulation)

11

Give 4 condiitons asscoaited with obesity and IR (2*)

- Laminitis
- Hyperlipaemia (stress induced)
- DOD (developmental orthopaedic problems)
- EMS

12

Which aspect of obesity causes the greatest risk of laminitis?

> IR
- suggeted changes in insulin signalling, inflammaotry cytokines, endothelial dysfucntion

13

What are the epigenetics implications of obesity?

Pre natal (genes switched off or on during late foetal and early post-natal stages) dependency on maternal diet
> obesity or emaciation
- obese mothers have ^ glucose conc and NEFA -> epigentic changes, possibly permenant (appetite control, neuroendocrine, fuel metabolism and energy partintioning)
- sub-optimum nutrition -> v pancreatic weight and B cells, structual changes -> impaired glucose homeostasis

14

What must be considered when controlling calorie intake in horses?

- DMI must be maintained
- welfare concerns associated with restricting DMI (sterotypies, colic, ulcers, dental)

15

How can weight loss be acheived?

> resitrict calorie intake
- grass muzzle
- double net forage
- restirct pasture and feed hay/straw
- soak hay to wash out nutritents
- hang from middle of stable - difficult for horse to get food
- subsitute hay with chaff or unmollassed beet pulp (IF OWNER WANTS TO FEED MEALS - NOT necessary)
> increase energy expenditure
- water and food at opposite ends of pasture
- strip graze (circumferential)
- clip
- do not rug

16

How does ^ energy expenditure -> weight loss?

- promotes glucose uptake and use by skeletal mm. by insulin indepentant route for ~24hrs
- ^ insulin sensitivity
- v inflammation
- v feed intake

17

What % body weight should a horse eat in forage? How much are they capable of eating?

1.5%
(can consume 3% BW in 3 hours at grass!!)