Flashcards in Zoonoses And One Health Deck (28)
WHat i the fatality rate of rabies?
What is the vaccine effectivity rate?
How many people receive post exposire prophylaxis for rabies per year?
>20 million due to severity of disease if contracted
WHat are the 2 types of disease reservoirs?
- Urban rabies - dogs and foxes
- SYlvatic rabies - wildlife (asia etc.)
What does outcome forr human disease depend on?
- location and severity of bite
- changes incubation period
- age and immunity
WHat demographic are commonly infected wiht rabies?
CHildren (~40% cases)
Is rabies endemic anyhere?
Yes, eastern europe, africa
pthogenesis of rabies?
- slow multiplication of virus in muscle cells
- rapid transport of virus genomes in the nerve axons
- rapid virus spread within the CNS
- massive virus replication in nerve cells
- transport in nerve axons to salivary glands and other peropheral organs
- massive multiplication in salivary gland cells
How long is the incubaiton period?
airbale, can be years! No one knows mechanimsn
WHat is the most important reservoir of rabies?
What are the 2 forms of rabies clinical sings?
- aggressive form
- dumb form
What animal is involved in south american rabies?
Bats and farm livestock (any mammal can be infected)
WHat is RIG?
- flood wound site with antibodys (passive transfer)
-transient prottection befrore vacicine induced immune system kicks in
- human and equine forms (HRIG, ERIG)
Problems with RIG?
- finding donors
- bath to batch difficultlies
- risks using blood products
> use monoclonal abs
Parenteral vax protocol for domestic animals?
- inactivated virus + adjuvant (aluminium phosphate)
- Nobivac dog cat horse cattle
- another one
> oral vaccine developing in china
How may wildlife spp be vaccinated?
- live-attenuated within a bait
WHat tpe of virus is rabies?
Which viruses other than rabies does the rabies vaccine work against?
Phyllogroup 1 viruses (mostly eurppean viruses)
What type of rabies seen in the old and new world?
> Old world (euroasia) - lyssa viruses in bats but no classical rabies in bats
> New world (americas) - classical rabies virus, but No other lyssavirsues in bats
WHere has rabies control been successsful in the past?
AMericas and Europe
Which methods of rabies control are effective?
- CUlling NOT successful
- Parenteral and oral vax
What % of dogs in a particular area should be vaccinated to control rabies?
70 % (40% likely to be successful)
What is the reproductive rate of rabies virus and hwo does this afffect sustainability of the disease?
- 2 (rabid dog will bite 2 dogs before it dies (average)
- if this no. <1 then the disease is not sustainable and will be eradicated (kind of)
- 40% makes this no. less than 1, but must account for new puppies born during the year so aim for 70%
How can costs to control rabies be justified?
So much money spent on post-exposure prophylaxis
How can molecular typing be useful in rabies cases?
Locate the geographical typing of the virus to check it is consistent with story of travel and bite (ie. check wasnt from UK imported dog etc.)
How long would an infected dog that is transmitting disease survive for?
10/15d - if you can catch and keep the dog you will find out if it was transmitting
WHat is the only way of diagnosing rabies once clinical signs present?
- euthanasia and FAT
- PCR for virus isolation