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Flashcards in Trace Element Deficiencies Deck (32):
1

Which industry are TE deficiencies rare?

dariy cattle - usually supplemented

2

What are the macro minerals?

Ca, Mg, P

3

What are the microminerals or trace elements?

Co, Cu, Se/Vit E, Iodine
Fe, Mn, Zn

4

How are trace elements gained by grazing animals>

Soil/plants

5

Which trace elements are often limited in temperate grassland productin?

Cobalt, se/vit E, copper, iodine

6

Which elements may negatively affect copper absorption?

Mo, S, Fe in rumen

7

Why may TE deficiency occour?

1* - soil/plant deficiency (Co, Se, I, Cu) - different regions/districts = soil deficiency so local knowledge useful
2* - lack of absorption in animal (Cu)

8

What is the function of Cobalt? (Co) What problems may this cause?

- essential component Vit B12
- Vit B12 co-enzyme in pathway Propionate -> glucose
- Deficiency = shortage of glucose, poor thrift esp of growing animals
- Sheep most affected
- Lethargy, poor growth rate, v BCS
- Pale MMs and anaemia in late disease
- Eye discharge, epiphora
- Concurrent parasitism and under-nutrition `

9

How can Co deficienct be diagnosed?

- B12 assay on bloods
- MMA^ if B12v in urine
- B12 on liver smaple
- MOST COMMON: Supplementation trial over 8-10 weeks (10 lambs no supplement)
- PCV non specific, DDx. Haemonchosis, faciolosis
- PME: Bone marrow hypoplasia, liver enlargement in severe cases

10

How may Co deficineyc be treated or controlled?

- Vit B12 injection and CoS oral drench
- Monthly Co drenching
- Cobalt Oxide bolus

11

What is the function of selenium/vit E?

- Cellular antioxidants
- deficiency causes membrane damage and tissue necorisis (skeletal, cardiac and respiratory mm, RBCs)

12

What is Se/Vit E deficiency called?

White muscle disease, still lamb disease, nutiritonal muscular dystrophy

13

What occours with white muscle disease?

> CLINICAL
- congential -> stillbirthds
- more usually 2-6weeks neonatal death or sudden onset stiffness, lowered head carriage, pain
- can be asscoaited with recent stress
> SUBCLINICAL
- poor growth rate
- embryonic deaths
- ^ disease susceptibility
- v milk yield

14

How may Se/Vit E deficiency be diagnosed?

- clinical signs
- glutathione peroxidase levels DECREASED in blood
- CK ^ greatly in early stages
- Vit E assay in bloods
- Histopath on cardiac m (esp stillborn lamsb)

15

How may Se/Vit E deficiency be treated or controlled?

- Se/Vit E injection
- Supplement pregnant ewe/cows
- Drench growing lambs
- Boluses
*BEWARE TOXICITY*

16

What makes Se/Vit E deficiney more likely?

Root crops

17

What is the function of Cu?

> enzymes eg.
- cytochrome oxidase for myelin formation
- caeruloplasmin for Fe release into plasma during erythropoiesis
- Lysyl oxidase for elastin and collagen synthesis
- Tyrosinase for pigmentation

18

What problems are often seen associated with Cu deficieny?

- poor thrift, D+, poor coat colour [mainly growing cattle 6-18 months)
- Swayback (lambs born to Cu-deficient ewes, adult deer)
- bone fragility

19

What is Cu deficieny often assocated with?

- poor nutrition
- levels in liver decrease over winter

20

What other problems may Cu cause?

Toxicity esp in sheep and goats
-> depression, anorexia, haemolysis, haemoglobinuria, jaundice

21

Which animal feed has particularly high levels of cu?

Pigs

22

When may cows be affected by Cu toxicity? (^)

Drinking copper footbaths

23

What clinical signs may be seen with Cu toxicity?

- AST>1000U/l in serum
- low PCV
- serum Cu levels have limited value, kidney assay better
- Gastroenteritis
- Swollen, dark grey ("Gun metal") kidneys
- Liver enlarged and friable

24

What is iodine required for?

Thyroid hormone synthesis

25

How may iodine deficiency present?

Clinically - goitre in new born lambs (weigh thyroids, histopath)
Sub-clinically - ^ perinatal mortality

26

Which species are particularly affected by a. Co b. Se c. Cu problems?

a. weaned lambs
b. all species
c. cattle (and sheep/goats with ^ levels -> toxicity)

27

What may gait abnormalities in new born indicate?

Se: white muscle disease
Cu: Swayback and spontaneous Fx

28

Testing what is most useful if TE deficiency suspected?

Animal (not plant or soil)

29

How are liver analyses usually carried out?

- biopsy (straightforward but uncommon)
- usually at PM or abattoir

30

What is the commonest way to diagnose a TE deficieny?

Treatemnt/control trial
- help quantiy magnitude of problem
- aid decision on likelhihood of economic response to suipplementation

31

Which TEs are toxic if overdosed?

Cu, Se

32

When should TE deficiency be suspected?

- more than 1 animal affected
- poor thrift
- gait abnormalities
- goitre