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Flashcards in Pre-Harvest Food Risks Deck (34)
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Give examples of hazards at farm level

- e coli 0157
- Pesticides
- Water
- Salmonella
- low quality silage -> Listeria


Define hazard

agent substance or action that has the potential to cause an undesired event


Define risk

probablilty of an undesired event occourring and the consquences of the undesired event


Other than food safety what may risk assessment be used to manage?

animal health, welfare and economics


Give an example of practical application of risk assessment

BPEX (part of zoonoses national control programme ZNCP) online farm tool helps faremrs and vets develop farm specific salmonella control plans to refocus resouces away from standard salmonella sampling at abattoir level


What are the aims/objectives of risk assessment and risk management?

Risk assessment - identify and prioritise relevant hazards and evalutate risk management strategies
Management - reduce or prevent the risk related ot the hazard


What is the goal of preharvest food safety?

Minimise risk of food bourne illness


Give examples of latent zoonoses

- Salmonella
- E. COli 0157
- Campylobacter
> do not necessarily cause disease in animals


What are risk pathways? Give an eg. of a complex risk pathway

sequence of events that can lead to outcomes and can be the basis for prevenetion
- eg. cattle act as reservoir for shiga toxin producing E. COli, can be spread directly, via milk, water, underbooked minced meat, other foods or fomites


Give examples of hazards in animal-derived foods

> Biological (bacteria, virus, parasite)
> Chemical (environmental contaminants, illegal substances, natural toxins (mycotoxins))
> Physical (glass, metal, non-edible ingredients)


What are the 6 key foodborne disease pathogens prioritised by the FSA?

Highest - Campylobacter (^incidence, ^ severity)
- LIsteria monocytongnees (v incidence, ^ severity)
- E. Coli 0175 (v incidence, ^ severity)
- Salmonella (^incidence, ~severity)
- Norovirus (^incidence, v severity)
- CLostridium perfringens (v incidence, v severity)


Who is responsible for animal food and water safety?

Feed manufacturers (eg. dioxin in Irish pork) OR farmer is sourcing ingredients to produce their own food (eg. poor silage production -> listeria)


Give examples of hazards that have entered the food chain through food or water

- dioxin
- Pb
- Mycotoxin
- Salmonella


What are the main 2 serovars of salmonella that affect humans?

A. Enterica
S. Typhimurium


Why is farm level control of salmonella particularly important?

- can contaminate animla feed
- can affect eggs before they are fully formed


Which 2 species has salmonella control focussed on? How are other species treated wrt salmonella?

- Poultry (v effectice control programme, vax)
- Pigs (UK Zoonoses national control programme - reduction of risk but not as effective as poultry)
- Other species = passive surveillance


Define incident and incidents

> incident = first isolation and all subsequent isolations of the same serovar of salmonella from an animal or epidemiologically distninct group of animals occouring on a single premises within a 30d period
> incidents = no of isolations (used in lieu of no. isolates as multiple isolats could be obtained from multiple samples taken in the same herd)


What is the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU? What is the main source?

Campylobacter - most common cause of food poisoning
- broiler meat (65% samples chicken for salepositive for campylobacter) and untreated water, raw milk, raw meat
- endemic in many species (cattle, sheep pigs)


Outline the FSA campylobacter risk management programme

reduce % birds with high level infection from 26% - 10% by 2015
- on farm intervention inclues fly screens, feed and water addtives to v colonisation risk, vax, genetics


Give 3 routes of infection of humans with E coli 0157. WHat is the main reservoir for infection?

- consumption of contaminated food/water
- direct contact animals./feaces
- person-person spread
> main reservoir = cattle but other ruminants can be infected


What are the main risks with consuming raw milk?

- listeria
- E. Coli
getting fat1


Outline how the prevalence of TB has changed

- compulsory eradication since 1950
- levels decreasing, then incidence increased since 1980s
- last 10 years costs ^


How is TB testing rate decided?

In England split into nnual and 4 yearly testing regions based on county
In Scotland based on risk


How many humans are infected with mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis yearly? What does this say about the risk to public health?

- risk to public health low due to pastuerisation


Is TB a notifiable disease?



WHat does risk management involve?

- ID most cost effective management
- Implementation
- monitoring and follow up


What are the 4 risk management stategies?

1. transfer (insuring against events)
2. avoidance (not performing an activity that is hazardous)
3. mitigation/reduction (reduction of negative consequences to below target levels)
4. acceptance (accept a level, only act if above this)


What are the 2 tiers of risk management stategy at pre-harvest level?

1 - biosecurity, good farm practice, feed/water, vet drugs
2 - pathogen specific practice and technology (pro-biotics, vax)


What problems are casued by innappropriate use of Abx>

- resistance
- allergies
- processing problems cheese etc.


What is the largest/most expensive statutory programme for management of a food safetly risk?

Bovine TB
- test and kill
- movement restriction
- biosecurity
- Vax? (NOT cattle)