OP 6 - Confined Space Emergencies (10) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in OP 6 - Confined Space Emergencies (10) Deck (66):

What are conditions that must exist in a space to allow entry and to ensure that members can safely enter into and work within the space?

Acceptable entry conditions.


What is a group of individuals with established communications and leadership assigned to perform work or rescue activities beyond the opening of, and within, the confined space. They shall be trained to the technician level for confined space rescue. They must be in standby mode and ready whenever the entry team is operating in a confined space. This team shall be composed of two rescue entrants.

Back up entry team.


Who is one capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions that are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them?

Qualified person.


What is a space that is large enough and so configured that a person can enter and perform assigned work, that has limited or restricted means for entry or exit, and that is not designed for continuous human occupancy?

Confined Space.


This team shall be made up of a minimum of six individuals trained to and operating at the technician level for confined space and rescue emergencies.
The positions will be one rescue team leader, one rescue attendant, two rescue entrants and two backup rescue entrants.

Confined space rescue team.


The action by which a person passes into a confined space. This includes ensuing work or rescue activities in that environment and is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant's body breaks the plane of an opening into the space, trench, or excavation.



What is a written form that addresses 15 specific areas of concern for an individual confined space?

Entry permit.
This document serves as a checklist that identifies unique characteristics for entry into a particular confined space at a given point in time. This form is required to be filled out before entry into a permit-required confined space.


What is a group of individuals, with establish communications and leadership, assigned to perform work or rescue activities beyond the opening of, and within, the confined space?

Entry team.
The shall be trained to the technician level for confined space rescue. The entry team will be composed of at least two rescue entrants.


What is any atmosphere which may cause immediate or delayed death, injury or disease and exposures are toxic, poisonous, corrosive, flammable or has the ability to be physically incapacitating or dangerous?

Hazardous atmosphere.
A. Levels of flammability of 10% or greater of the lower explosive limit
B. Oxygen deficient atmospheres with levels below 19.5%
C. Oxygen enriched atmospheres above 23.5%
D. Airborne combustible dust greater than its L.E.L.
E. Any other toxic environment


What is any condition that would pose an immediate or delayed threat to life, cause irreversible adverse health effects, or interfere with an individual's ability to escape unaided from a hazardous environment?

Immediately dangers to life or health (IDLH).


What is a method for keeping equipment from being set in motion and endangering workers?



What is a rope rescue system used to lower a load under control?

Lowering system.


A permit-required confined space has, or has the potential for, one or more of the following characteristics...

A. Contains or has a potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere.
B. Contains a material that has the potential for engulfing an entrant.
C. Has an internal configuration such that an entrant could be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a floor which slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross-section.
D. Contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.

*Prior to an entry, OSHA requires that these types of spaces are evaluated and all potential hazards are reduced before a written permit is issued.*


What is information passed to all personnel prior to entry into a confined space environment?

Pre-entry briefing.


What is a rope rescue system used to raise a load under control?

Raising system.


What is nonemergency operations carried out by responders to retrieve property or remains of victims?



Who is the person who is trained and qualified to the technician level for confined space rescue to be stationed outside the confined space to monitor rescue entrants, summon assistance, and perform nonentry rescues?

Rescue Attendant.


Who is the person trained and qualified to the technician level for confined space rescue to be entering a confined space for the specific purpose of rescue?

Rescue Entrant.


Who is the person trained and qualified to the technician level for confined space rescue who is designated within the ICS as rescue group/division officer responsible for direct supervision of the rescue team operations?

Rescue team leader.


What are combinations of rescue equipment used for non-entry (external) rescue of persons from confined spaces?

Retrieval system.


What is a decision made by a responder based on a hazard identification and situation assessment that weighs the risks likely to be taken against the benefits to be gained for taking those risks?

Risk/benefit analysis.


What are components used to build rope rescue systems including life safety rope, life safety harnesses, and auxiliary equipment?

Rope-rescue equipment.


Who is an individual trained and qualified to the technician level for confined space rescue appointed by the incident commander to maintain a safe working environment?

Safety officer.


What is a mental process of evaluating influencing factors at an incident prior to committing resources to a course of action?

Size up.


What is a method of tagging, labeling, or otherwise marking an isolation device during hazard abatement operations to prevent accidental removal of the device?



What is a covered excavation used for the conveyance of people or materials, typically no smaller than 36 inches in diameter and within 20° of horizontal?



What will the first arriving unit do when arriving at a confined space incident?

A. Recognize a confined space incident and the need for confined space search and rescue.
B. Give a status report as soon as possible to the FCC. This report should be based on your observations and any verifiable information available. Assume the role of incident commander until properly relieved.
C. Begin to size up the incident and avoid committing to any potentially dangerous situations. The objective of the size up is to identify the nature of the problem and gather sufficient information to formulate a valid action plan.
D. Perform NON-ENTRY rescues, if possible. Members will positively NOT make entry into a confined space. Do not underestimate the seriousness of confined space incidents. MORE THAN HALF OF THE CASUALTIES OF CONFINED SPACE INCIDENTS ARE RESCUERS.
E. Initiate contact and establish communications with victims, where possible.
F. Gather as much pertinent information as possible from competent persons on the surface.
(1). Consult with plant engineers and plant emergency responders as to the characteristics and current usage of the involved confined space.
(2). Consult with the designated company representative of a utility-owned confined space for pertinent information regarding same. (PECO, PGW, etc)
(3). The Philadelphia water Department has trained and equipped "Sewer Inspectors" available for consultation or assistance.
G. Implement site control and scene management.


What will the first arriving Battalion chief do upon arrival of a confined space incident?

A. Assume command.
B. In conjunction with the rescue team leader, conduct a risk/benefit analysis, and develop a clear, concise operational plan including a contingency plan.
C. Designate a safety officer in conjunction with special operations command personnel who is trained to the technician level for confined space rescue (per NFPA standard #1670) and has the specific knowledge and responsibility for the identification, evaluation, and, where possible, correction of hazardous conditions and unsafe practices to ensure the members' safety.
D. Set up an operations perimeter. Established hot, warm, and cold zones.
E. Designate a staging area in the cold zone. Ensure that all resources not actively engaged as either the confined space entry team operating in the hot zone, or support personnel operating the warm zone, remain staged in the cold zone.
F. Coordinate crowd control and site access with on scene police incident commander.


Who will assume the role of the rescue team leader and what are their responsibilities?

The company officer of a rescue or squad company.
1. Prepare the entry permit and ensure compliance with all listed safety considerations, including personnel assignments corresponding to the OSHA definitions and air supply system considerations.
2. Confirm lockout and tagout conditions for the confined space.


What will FCC do when receiving information that a confined space incident exists?

Dispatch 1 engine company, 1 ladder company, 1 BC, 1 squad company (with the signed A unit), rescue 1, rescue 1A, 1 ALS medic unit and 1 EMCO.

Notify the appropriate division chief and special operations command whenever a confirmed confined space incident occurs.

If the confined space is determined to be a permit required confined space, dispatch hazmat 1 to assist in hazardous materials identification, monitoring, and remediation.


What shall be identified for each confined space and what is the process for identifying these?

1. Past and current uses of the confined space which may adversely affect the atmosphere of the confined space.
2. Physical characteristics, configuration and location of the confined space.
3. Biological, mechanical or physical hazards.
4. Existing or potential hazards in the confined space such as a FLAMMABLE AND TOXIC ENVIRONMENT (FATE).


What actions should be taken to eliminate ignition sources on a confined space incident?

1. Park apparatus in the cold zone.
2. Shutdown plant operations in the immediate area, if necessary.
3. Do not take equipment that could serve as an ignition source into the hot zone.
**Conventional flood and hand lights are not intrinsically safe. Rescue 1 and squad companies carry intrinsically safe portable lighting. ONLY USE INTRINSICALLY SAFE RADIOS. PFD portable radios are intrinsically safe. However, the batteries may not be. It is imperative that only batteries with a "green dot" on the bottom of the battery are used.**


How should provided lighting be utilized?

Keep floodlights outside of the hot zone.
Hand lights maybe used under limited and restricted conditions. Taping the light switch in the open position should eliminate the problem of ignition...THIS WILL ENSURE THAT THE SWITCH REMAINS IN THIS POSITION.


How many individuals trained to the technician level will make up a confined space rescue team?



Must a confined space operation follow a clear and concise course of action with backup plans in place?

Yes. An operational plan and a contingency plan must be developed.


Will each entry and exit point be evaluated to determine the most effective method for entry and egress travel distances?



Before entering a confined space you should determine what type of equipment is required to enter, retrieve the individual(s) and exit the confined space in the safest manner possible, true or false?



Hazards identified shall be evaluated by a "competent person" and/or the safety officer, true or false?



All energy sources which are potentially hazardous to the confined space entrant shall be secured, relieved, disconnected and/or restrained before personnel are permitted to enter the confined space. Lockout/tag out of equipment, systems and processes shall be confirmed and secured prior to permitting entry into the confined space, true or false?



Is bunker gear, boots, helmet and gloves mandatory to be worn throughout a confined space incident if conditions dictate their use?

Yes. On occasion, protective clothing may not be practical due to an extremely limited working area, warm temperature, etc. This decision will be made by the incident commander in conjunction with the safety officer.
On other occasions, bunker gear will not provide adequate protection and encapsulated suits shall be incorporated into the operation. This will be determined by the incident commander in conjunction with the safety officer.


Is respiratory protection mandatory to be worn by all personnel who enter a confined space?



What is the preferred method of supplying breathing air to a confined space?

A confined space Supplied Air Respiratory Extension System (SAR) with 10 or 45 minute duration escape cylinders. These are carried by rescue 1, squad companies and HMTF-1.
In limited situations, the use of standard SCBA is an option at the discretion of the incident commander.


Should safety lines and harnesses be attached to anyone entering a confined space?

Yes. This equipment should be NFPA approved 1/2" life-saving rope and related hardware and software carried by rescue 1 and squad companies.


Will a standby team be fully suited and ready to go in at all times during a confined space incident?

Yes. One standby member for each member in the confined space is required.


Members should not travel more than _____ feet in a confined space when using extension hoses with external air supplies.

300 feet. If possible, an alternate entry/exit should be explored.


Should SCBA's with 45 minute duration cylinders be used as escape cylinders when the confined space permits adequate clearances?

External air supply extensions can be used with these types of the SCBA's by the use of "pigtails" designed to be used in addition to the buddy breathing rescue hoses. These air supply extension hoses are carried by rescue 1 and squad companies.


Due to the possible interruption or failure of the external air supply, members should not exceed an internal travel distance that would preclude the ability of the attached 10 minute escape (self-rescue) bottle, or 45 minute SCBA (being utilized as escape bottle) to provide adequate reserve air to exit the confined space, true or false?



Should consideration be given in the operational plan to provide respiratory protection for the victim(s) of a confined space incident?

Yes. The standard issue with RIT bag with manifold and spare air cylinder should be used instead of an oxygen resuscitator due to the possibility of creating an oxygen enriched atmosphere within the confined space.
Consideration should be given to utilizing the bio-pak 4 Hour SCBA rebreather systems that rescue 1 carries on rescue 1 A. Rescue 1 A carries seven (7) of these SCBA units.


A confined space must be monitored prior to entry and during the entire operation, either continuously or at frequent intervals. Even if conditions were acceptable before entering, they may change, true or false?

Atmospheric monitoring readings should be taken and recorded approximately every 10 minutes until the conclusion of the operation.


A confined space atmosphere must be evaluated (at all levels of the confined space) for the following conditions?

A. Oxygen
1. 19.5% or less = oxygen deficient. Respiratory protection is mandatory.
2. 23.5% or more = oxygen enriched. Respiratory protection needs should be carefully evaluated.
B. Flammability (10% LEL or greater). Respiratory protection is mandatory.
C. Carbon monoxide. Respiratory protection needs should be carefully evaluated.
D. Hydrogen sulfide. Respiratory protection needs should be carefully evaluated.
E. Toxicity. Respiratory protection needs should be carefully evaluated.


For ongoing confined space rescue operations, which two gas monitors will be used and which companies have the meters?

4 gas monitor (combustibility, oxygen, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide)

5 gas monitor (combustibility, oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide)

Battalion chief vehicles and rescue 1 have a 4 gas monitor.

Squad companies and HMTF 1 have a 5 gas monitor, draeger tubes and other monitoring equipment.

**The use of other meters, depending on the oxygen content within the confined space, may cause false readings.**


Will the use of radios in close proximity to the atmospheric monitors cause a false reading?

Yes it may.


Should a confined space be ventilated before the entry team enters?

Yes. Ventilation will be maintained during the operation as required. When ventilating a confined space, caution should be used not to place the atmosphere within the lower and upper explosive limits.


In what ways can ventilation of a confined space be accomplished?

1. Mechanical ventilation can be used to blow air into the confined space. KEEP FANS AND VENTILATORS AWAY FROM APPARATUS EXHAUST.
2. Smoke detectors with extension sleeves may be used.
3. The confined space ventilator (carried by rescue 1 and squad companies) maybe used to force fresh air into a confined space.

**Caution must be used before making a decision to exhaust air from within a confined space to the exterior because exhausting may carry gases to an ignition source.**


What must be established prior to entering a confined space and must be indicated on the entry permit, including primary and secondary methods?

A communications plan.


What four ways of communication can be used in a confined space incident?

1. Voice or eye contact. This is the preferred method although in many cases this is not practical. Consider relay personnel if the distance is excessive.

2. A confined space communication system, carried by rescue 1 and squad companies.

3. Intrinsically safe radios. PFD portable radios are intrinsically safe, however the batteries may not be. It is imperative that only batteries with a green dot on the bottom of the battery are used.

4. Rope signals.

a. Outside to entry team:
1. One pull - up or out
2. Two pulls - down or in
3. Three pulls - distress or help

b. Entry team to outside
1. One pull - up or out
2. Two pulls - moving down or
moving in
3. Three pulls - distress or help
**Three pulls indicates an emergency situation and at least one back-up member should be dispatched to ascertain the situation**


In a confined space rescue, if a victim is injured should the entry team treat injuries prior to removing the victim or remove the victim before stabilizing injuries?

Only life-threatening injuries should be treated and this treatment should be evaluated against remaining in the confined space.


What victim packaging devices could be employed in a confined space rescue?

SKED stretcher, confined space backboard, wristlets and rope rescue equipment carried by rescue 1 and squad companies.

** Select, construct and use a rope lowering and raising system in the high angle environment to facilitate victim removal, either vertically or horizontally from the confined space. Rescue 1 and squad companies have a tripod and mechanical advantage hauling system for this purpose. NFPA approved rescue ropes should be used for victim removal.**


A major cause of confined space injuries and/or fatalities is the failure to recognize the incident for what it is... A CONFINED SPACE INCIDENT. It must be kept in mind that the hazards of an open-topped enclosure, with depths that restrict the natural movement of air can be extremely deceiving, true or false?

True. For example : degreasers, pits, selected types of tanks and excavations.

Enclosures with extremely limited openings for entry or exit can significantly increase the risk inherent in rescue operations. For example: sewers, casings, tanks, manholes and silos.


What are the five confined space rescue team positions and what are their responsibilities?

Rescue team leader - The person designated within the ICS as a rescue group/division officer responsible for the direct supervision of the rescue team operations.

Rescue attendant - The person who is trained and qualified to be stationed outside a confined space to monitor rescue entrants, summon assistance, and perform non entry rescues. Attendant cannot leave position until properly relieved by another attendant.

Rescue entrant (2)- A person trained and qualified to be entering a confined space for the specific specific purpose of rescue.

Backup rescue entrant (2)- A person trained and qualified to be entering a confined space for the specific purpose of rescue.


What are four distinct categories of hazardous atmospheres?

Flammable, toxic, irritants and/or corrosives and asphyxiating.


What are five common gases found in below grade or confined space operations?

Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, methane and sulfur dioxide.


A group of gases may stratify within a confined space, true or false?

True. This is one reason why one person may survive exposure to gas at one level, while another dies from exposure to the same (or different gas) at another level. All levels of a confined space must be monitored for atmospheric conditions.


Physical/mechanical hazards may be encountered in a confined space incident, true or false?

True. Areas of concern are utility installations, areas having certain types of machinery and areas offering extremely limited working space.


Under no circumstances will any PFD member, other than those SOC personnel who have a current department of labor/mine safety health administration tunnel/mine rescue certification, make entry into, or operate within, a confined space that meets the definition of a below grade tunnel, true or false?

Very true.


The incident commander will be responsible for completing an after action report detailing the events in accordance with NIMS, true or false?


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