Flashcards in Outcome 1 Respiratory Deck (118):
What makes up the upper respiratory tract?
nose, pharynx, larynx
What makes up the lower respiratory tract?
trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
Coughing or spitting up of blood from the respiratory tract
Ranges from blood streaked sputum to hemorrhage
Generally a symptom of an underlying disorder such as trauma, erosion of a vessel, calcification, tumors, and inflammatory conditions
Treatment: ligation, surgical removal, surgical repair of a vessel
Airless or collapsed state of pulmonary tissue
Atelectasis is caused by the obstruction of the _____
Three causes of atelectasis:
1. OBSTRUCTIONS by mucus plugs, foreign body or bronchogenic cancer
2. inflammatory pulmonary DISEASE
3. FAILURE to breathe deeply
Treatment: surgical drainage of a pleural effusion
Occurs when a clot or foreign body blocks an artery in the pulmonary circulation
Five causes of pulmonary embolism:
2. oral contraceptive pills
3. emboli (air or fat)
5. stasis of blood flow
POETS: Robert Frost
Three treatment options for pulmonary embolism
1. oxygen therapy
3. thrombolytic drugs
T or F. In cases of pulmonary embolism, prevention is easier than treatment.
Inflammation of the lungs due to infection
What is another name for walking pneumonia?
Causes: viruses, bacteria, inhalation of a damaging gas or chemical
Treatment of pneumonia is based on _____.
Cavity of contained infectious material in lung
Often a complication of bacterial pneumonia
4 other causes of pulmonary abscess:
1. aspiration of food/foreign object
2. bronchial stenosis
3. septic embolism
Treatment: surgical resection if antibiotics are ineffective
Acute respiratory infection that produces severe pneumonia-like symptoms or fatal pneumonia
What is another name for legionnaires' disease?
Legionnaires' disease is pneumonia caused by which bacteria?
Legionella pneumophila grows in warm water environments and is inhaled in _______
aerosolized water droplet
Condition caused by Legionella pneumophila bacteria but unlike Legionnaires' disease, does not cause pneumonia
Legionnaires' disease is treated with ____ before the diagnosis is even confirmed because the response to treatment is generally slow
Inflammatory and infectious condition of the lungs
respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia or RSV pneumonia
What virus causes RSV pneumonia?
respiratory syncytial virus
Greatest occurence for RSV pneumonia is during _____
Treatment: oxygen therapy
T or F. Antibiotics would be given for associated infections but not the RSV itself
Most of us have had RSV respiratory infection at some point but the 3 main groups at risk for RSV pneumonia are:
1. children younger than 3 including infants
3. patients with compromised respiratory systems
What type of infants are most at risk for RSV pneumonia?
1. premature infants
2. infants with a congenital cardiac defect or pre-existing pulmonary disorder
Fungal disease originating in the lungs
Histoplasmosis is caused by inhalation of ___ containing ___
dust containing Histoplasma capsulatum
Treatment: mild cases may not need treatment, antifungals
Disease that can be an opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS
Generalized highly contagious acute viral disease that occurs in annual outbreaks; initial symptoms are similar to common cold
T or F. Influenza can cause secondary bacterial pneumonia
Which viruses usually cause influenza?
orthomyxovirus A, B & C
Treatment: symptomatic, prophylactic vaccines recommended
Slow and irreversible progressive airway obstruction
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
What is another name for COPD?
chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD)
T or F. COPD includes acute bronchitis
F. COPD *only* includes chronic bronchitis
What other disease fall under the COPD umbrella?
bronchiectasis, asthma, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, pneumoconiosis
Treatment: depends on the lung condition
Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the bronchi
Type of bronchitis that is usually part of a viral upper respiratory infection; treatment is symptom relief onlookers
Type of bronchitis usually related to constant irritation from smoking, exposure to industrial pollution, or recurrent lung infections
How long must symptoms be present to diagnose chronic bronchitis?
3 months of the year for at least 2 years in a row
Chronic bronchitis is treated depending on ____
Permanent irreversible DILATION or distortion of one or more bronchial
Bronchiectasis results from the destruction of muscular and elastic portions of the ___
Cause: repeated damage to bronchial walls from recurrent lung infections, bronchial obstruction, inhalation of corrosive gas, cystic fibrosis and some childhood infections
What is the difference between bronchiectasis and bronchitis?
BRONCHITIS: constant irritation causing irritation to the mucous membrane lining the bronchi
BRONCHIECTASIS: dilation of one or more bronchi
*med term rules
Disorder affecting the exocrine glands and causes the production of abnormally thick mucus, leading to the blockage of bronchi and often resulting in respiratory infection such as bronchiectasis
Disorder causing patient to produce large quantities of purulent foul smelling sputum; treatment includes postural drainage
COPD characterized by destructive changes in _____ and irreversible enlargement of _____
pulmonary emphysema; destructive changes in alveolar walls and irreversible enlargement of alveolar air spaces
What 3 things do patients with pulmonary emphysema develop?
2. right ventricular heart failure
3. digital clubbing
Treatment: drug therapy, oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation
In some pulmonary emphysema cases, surgery to improve ___ may be performed; usually involves the removal of portions of the lung
Any disease of the lung caused by long term dust inhalation
How are pneumoconiosis and histoplasmosis different?
pneumoconiosis: any lung disease caused by long-term inhalation of regular dust
histoplasmosis: fungal disease caused by inhalation of dust containing Histoplasma capsulatum
T or F. Pneumoconiosis is considered to be an occupational disease
Inflammation of the membranes surrounding the lungs and lining of the pleural cavity
T or F. Pleurisy/pleuritis is usually a secondary to other disease or infection
What are the two types of pleurisy/pleuritis?
Type of pleurisy where pleural fluid is present
Type of pleurisy where pleural fluid decreases
Three treatments used for pleurisy:
1. antibiotic therapy and analgesics to control pain
2. splinting of the chest and deep breathing exercises for good ventilation
3. therapeutic thoracotomy
Collection of air and gas in the pleural cavity that results in a collapse or partially collapsed lung
How are pneumothorax and pleurisy different in regard to their effects on the pleural cavity?
pneumothorax: collection of air in the pleural cavity; collapsed lung
pleurisy: inflammation of the membranes surrounding the lungs and lining of the pleural cavity; secondary to other disease
What are two types of pneumothorax?
Type of pneumothorax where an opening is present on the surface of a lung; disorder causing internal erosion of the lung surface
Type of pneumothorax where the integrity of the pleural cavity is breached as a result of trauma; following a chest injury sometimes caused by the patient's own rib
Three treatments to manage pneumothorax pain:
1. fowler/semi-fowler position most comfortable
2. dressing over the wound
3. drainage system to expand and heal the lung
Accumulation of blood and fluid in the pleural cavity
How are pneumothorax and hemothorax different?
pneumothorax: collection of air in the pleural cavity
hemothorax: collection of blood/fluid in the pleural cavity
In hemothorax, blood enters the pleural space because of trauma erosion of _____ or ______ causing lung to collapse
pulmonary vessel or hematologic disorder
To treat hemothorax, the lung must be expanded by ____ to drain the blood
T or F. Hemothorax can coexist with pneumothorax
Instability in the chest wall caused by multiple rib fractures or sternum
Flail chest is caused by direct trauma to the chest wall that fractures ___ or more adjacent ribs
Flail chest can cause ____ breathing; the chest moves inward during inspiration and outward during expiration -- the opposite of what should happen normally
Flail chest is treated by stabilizing the chest wall and healing the rib fractures while maintaining _____
Chronic, acute or subacute infection of the lungs
pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)
What bacteria causes pulmonary tuberculosis?
What are the two forms of tuberculosis?
1. primary form
2. secondary form
Form of tuberculosis where a lesion in the lung develops because the normal antigen response doesn't inactivate the disease, causing ____
primary form; causes cavitations
Form of tuberculosis that is the sequelae of primary form when the primary form is not treated properly and the body creates pockets of tuberculosis
Form of tuberculosis that occurs following reactivation of the primary infection or exposure to an infected person
List three factors contributing to the spread of tuberculosis
2. lack of vaccinations
Glandular fever and acute herpesvirus infection
What is another name for infectious mononucleosis?
What virus causes mono?
List 3 treatments for mononucleosis.
1. bed rest
2. increased fluid intake
3. antipyretic drugs
What are the symptoms of mononucleosis in the acute phase?
fever and malaise
Syndrome and cancer that results from EBV
chronic fatigue syndrome, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (next outcome)
The ___ and ___ can experience complications related to mononucleosis
spleen and liver
Type of acute lung injury characterized by severe pulmonary congestion, acute respiratory distress, and hypoxemia
adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
What is another name for ARDS?
Secondary to severe trauma or some agent
T or F. There is no known cure for ARDS; interventions are supportive only
Multi-system granulomatous (small lesions of inflamed cells) disorder most commonly detected in the lung, but can affect other organs as well
Respiratory disorder thought to be a malfunction of the immune system but is mostly idiopathic
What can be prescribed when sarcoidosis is widespread?
immunosuppressant drugs; corticosteroid therapy to relieve pain symotoms
Most common type of cancer death
What is the most common symptom of lung cancer?
shortness of breath
Lung cancer is caused by repeated carcinogenic irritation to the ____, leading to increased rates of cell division
What are two types of lung cancer?
1. non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
2. small cell lung cancer (SCLC)
Type of cancer not associated with smoking
Type of cancer associated with smoking
Lung cancer treatment is based on the ___ of tumor and ___ of tumor
type and stage