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Flashcards in Outcome 1 Respiratory Deck (118):
1

What makes up the upper respiratory tract?

nose, pharynx, larynx

2

What makes up the lower respiratory tract?

trachea, bronchial tree, lungs

3

Coughing or spitting up of blood from the respiratory tract

hemoptysis

4

Ranges from blood streaked sputum to hemorrhage

hemoptysis

5

Generally a symptom of an underlying disorder such as trauma, erosion of a vessel, calcification, tumors, and inflammatory conditions

hemoptysis

6

Treatment: ligation, surgical removal, surgical repair of a vessel

hemoptysis

7

Airless or collapsed state of pulmonary tissue

atelectasis

8

Atelectasis is caused by the obstruction of the _____

bronchial tree

9

Three causes of atelectasis:

1. OBSTRUCTIONS by mucus plugs, foreign body or bronchogenic cancer
2. inflammatory pulmonary DISEASE
3. FAILURE to breathe deeply

10

Treatment: surgical drainage of a pleural effusion

atelectasis

11

Occurs when a clot or foreign body blocks an artery in the pulmonary circulation

pulmonary embolism

12

Five causes of pulmonary embolism:

1. pregnancy
2. oral contraceptive pills
3. emboli (air or fat)
4. thrombi
5. stasis of blood flow

POETS: Robert Frost

13

Three treatment options for pulmonary embolism

1. oxygen therapy
2. anticoagulants
3. thrombolytic drugs

14

T or F. In cases of pulmonary embolism, prevention is easier than treatment.

T

15

Inflammation of the lungs due to infection

pneumonia

16

*

walking pneumonia

17

What is another name for walking pneumonia?

atypical pneumonia

18

*

aspiration pneumonia

19

Causes: viruses, bacteria, inhalation of a damaging gas or chemical

pneumonia

20

Treatment of pneumonia is based on _____.

the cause

21

Cavity of contained infectious material in lung

pulmonary abscess

22

Often a complication of bacterial pneumonia

pulmonary abscess

23

4 other causes of pulmonary abscess:

1. aspiration of food/foreign object
2. bronchial stenosis
3. septic embolism
4. neoplasms

ABSN

24

Treatment: surgical resection if antibiotics are ineffective

pulmonary abscess

25

Acute respiratory infection that produces severe pneumonia-like symptoms or fatal pneumonia

legionnaires' disease

26

What is another name for legionnaires' disease?

legionellosis

27

Legionnaires' disease is pneumonia caused by which bacteria?

legionella pneumophila

28

Legionella pneumophila grows in warm water environments and is inhaled in _______

aerosolized water droplet

29

Condition caused by Legionella pneumophila bacteria but unlike Legionnaires' disease, does not cause pneumonia

pontiac fever

30

Legionnaires' disease is treated with ____ before the diagnosis is even confirmed because the response to treatment is generally slow

antibiotic therapy

31

Inflammatory and infectious condition of the lungs

respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia or RSV pneumonia

32

What virus causes RSV pneumonia?

respiratory syncytial virus

33

Greatest occurence for RSV pneumonia is during _____

winter

34

Treatment: oxygen therapy

RSV pneumonia

35

T or F. Antibiotics would be given for associated infections but not the RSV itself

true

36

Most of us have had RSV respiratory infection at some point but the 3 main groups at risk for RSV pneumonia are:

1. children younger than 3 including infants
2. elderly
3. patients with compromised respiratory systems

37

What type of infants are most at risk for RSV pneumonia?

1. premature infants
2. infants with a congenital cardiac defect or pre-existing pulmonary disorder

38

Fungal disease originating in the lungs

histoplasmosis

39

Histoplasmosis is caused by inhalation of ___ containing ___

dust containing Histoplasma capsulatum

40

Treatment: mild cases may not need treatment, antifungals

histoplasmosis

41

Disease that can be an opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS

histoplasmosis

42

Generalized highly contagious acute viral disease that occurs in annual outbreaks; initial symptoms are similar to common cold

influenza

43

T or F. Influenza can cause secondary bacterial pneumonia

T

44

Which viruses usually cause influenza?

orthomyxovirus A, B & C

45

Treatment: symptomatic, prophylactic vaccines recommended

influenza

46

Slow and irreversible progressive airway obstruction

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

47

What is another name for COPD?

chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD)

48

T or F. COPD includes acute bronchitis

F. COPD *only* includes chronic bronchitis

49

What other disease fall under the COPD umbrella?

bronchiectasis, asthma, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, pneumoconiosis

50

Treatment: depends on the lung condition

COPD

51

Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the bronchi

bronchitis

52

Type of bronchitis that is usually part of a viral upper respiratory infection; treatment is symptom relief onlookers

acute bronchitis

53

Type of bronchitis usually related to constant irritation from smoking, exposure to industrial pollution, or recurrent lung infections

chronic bronchitis

54

How long must symptoms be present to diagnose chronic bronchitis?

3 months of the year for at least 2 years in a row

55

Chronic bronchitis is treated depending on ____

stage

56

Permanent irreversible DILATION or distortion of one or more bronchial

bronchiectasis

57

Bronchiectasis results from the destruction of muscular and elastic portions of the ___

bronchial wall

58

Cause: repeated damage to bronchial walls from recurrent lung infections, bronchial obstruction, inhalation of corrosive gas, cystic fibrosis and some childhood infections

bronchiectasis

59

What is the difference between bronchiectasis and bronchitis?

BRONCHITIS: constant irritation causing irritation to the mucous membrane lining the bronchi
BRONCHIECTASIS: dilation of one or more bronchi

*med term rules

60

Disorder affecting the exocrine glands and causes the production of abnormally thick mucus, leading to the blockage of bronchi and often resulting in respiratory infection such as bronchiectasis

cystic fibrosis

61

Disorder causing patient to produce large quantities of purulent foul smelling sputum; treatment includes postural drainage

bronchiectasis

62

COPD characterized by destructive changes in _____ and irreversible enlargement of _____

pulmonary emphysema; destructive changes in alveolar walls and irreversible enlargement of alveolar air spaces

63

What 3 things do patients with pulmonary emphysema develop?

1. cyanosis
2. right ventricular heart failure
3. digital clubbing

64

Treatment: drug therapy, oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation

pulmonary emphysema

65

In some pulmonary emphysema cases, surgery to improve ___ may be performed; usually involves the removal of portions of the lung

air trapping

66

Any disease of the lung caused by long term dust inhalation

pneumoconiosis

67

How are pneumoconiosis and histoplasmosis different?

pneumoconiosis: any lung disease caused by long-term inhalation of regular dust
histoplasmosis: fungal disease caused by inhalation of dust containing Histoplasma capsulatum

68

T or F. Pneumoconiosis is considered to be an occupational disease

T

69

Inflammation of the membranes surrounding the lungs and lining of the pleural cavity

pleurisy/pleuritis

70

T or F. Pleurisy/pleuritis is usually a secondary to other disease or infection

T

71

What are the two types of pleurisy/pleuritis?

1. wet
2. dry

72

Type of pleurisy where pleural fluid is present

wet pleurisy

73

Type of pleurisy where pleural fluid decreases

dry pleurisy

74

Three treatments used for pleurisy:

1. antibiotic therapy and analgesics to control pain
2. splinting of the chest and deep breathing exercises for good ventilation
3. therapeutic thoracotomy

75

Collection of air and gas in the pleural cavity that results in a collapse or partially collapsed lung

pneumothorax

76

How are pneumothorax and pleurisy different in regard to their effects on the pleural cavity?

pneumothorax: collection of air in the pleural cavity; collapsed lung
pleurisy: inflammation of the membranes surrounding the lungs and lining of the pleural cavity; secondary to other disease

77

What are two types of pneumothorax?

1. spontaneous
2. traumatic

78

Type of pneumothorax where an opening is present on the surface of a lung; disorder causing internal erosion of the lung surface

spontaneous pneumothorax

79

Type of pneumothorax where the integrity of the pleural cavity is breached as a result of trauma; following a chest injury sometimes caused by the patient's own rib

traumatic pneumothorax

80

Three treatments to manage pneumothorax pain:

1. fowler/semi-fowler position most comfortable
2. dressing over the wound
3. drainage system to expand and heal the lung

81

Accumulation of blood and fluid in the pleural cavity

hemothorax

82

How are pneumothorax and hemothorax different?

pneumothorax: collection of air in the pleural cavity
hemothorax: collection of blood/fluid in the pleural cavity

83

In hemothorax, blood enters the pleural space because of trauma erosion of _____ or ______ causing lung to collapse

pulmonary vessel or hematologic disorder

84

To treat hemothorax, the lung must be expanded by ____ to drain the blood

thoracotomy

85

T or F. Hemothorax can coexist with pneumothorax

T

86

Instability in the chest wall caused by multiple rib fractures or sternum

flail chest

87

Flail chest is caused by direct trauma to the chest wall that fractures ___ or more adjacent ribs

three

88

Flail chest can cause ____ breathing; the chest moves inward during inspiration and outward during expiration -- the opposite of what should happen normally

paradoxical breathing

89

Flail chest is treated by stabilizing the chest wall and healing the rib fractures while maintaining _____

respiratory integrity

90

Chronic, acute or subacute infection of the lungs

pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)

91

What bacteria causes pulmonary tuberculosis?

myobacterium tuberculosis

92

What are the two forms of tuberculosis?

1. primary form
2. secondary form

93

Form of tuberculosis where a lesion in the lung develops because the normal antigen response doesn't inactivate the disease, causing ____

primary form; causes cavitations

94

Form of tuberculosis that is the sequelae of primary form when the primary form is not treated properly and the body creates pockets of tuberculosis

secondary form

95

Form of tuberculosis that occurs following reactivation of the primary infection or exposure to an infected person

secondary form

96

List three factors contributing to the spread of tuberculosis

1. travel
2. lack of vaccinations
3. HIV/AIDS

97

Glandular fever and acute herpesvirus infection

infectious mononucleosis

98

What is another name for infectious mononucleosis?

Epstein-Barr infection

99

What virus causes mono?

Epstein-Barr virus

100

List 3 treatments for mononucleosis.

1. bed rest
2. increased fluid intake
3. antipyretic drugs

101

What are the symptoms of mononucleosis in the acute phase?

fever and malaise

102

Syndrome and cancer that results from EBV

chronic fatigue syndrome, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (next outcome)

103

The ___ and ___ can experience complications related to mononucleosis

spleen and liver

104

Type of acute lung injury characterized by severe pulmonary congestion, acute respiratory distress, and hypoxemia

adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

105

What is another name for ARDS?

shock lung

106

Secondary to severe trauma or some agent

ARDS

107

T or F. There is no known cure for ARDS; interventions are supportive only

T

108

Multi-system granulomatous (small lesions of inflamed cells) disorder most commonly detected in the lung, but can affect other organs as well

sarcoidosis

109

Respiratory disorder thought to be a malfunction of the immune system but is mostly idiopathic

sarcoidosis

110

What can be prescribed when sarcoidosis is widespread?

immunosuppressant drugs; corticosteroid therapy to relieve pain symotoms

111

Most common type of cancer death

lung cancer

112

What is the most common symptom of lung cancer?

shortness of breath

113

Lung cancer is caused by repeated carcinogenic irritation to the ____, leading to increased rates of cell division

bronchial epithelium

114

What are two types of lung cancer?

1. non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
2. small cell lung cancer (SCLC)

115

Type of cancer not associated with smoking

NSCLC

116

Type of cancer associated with smoking

SCLC

117

Lung cancer treatment is based on the ___ of tumor and ___ of tumor

type and stage

118

Treatment: radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy

lung cancer