Outcome 9 Mental Health Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Outcome 9 Mental Health Deck (227):
1

The capacity to cope and adjust to the ongoing stresses of everyday life

mental wellness

2

Difficulty coping with ongoing everyday stresses, which results in psychological pain and possibly affects physical health

mental illness

3

Standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals containing a listing of diagnostic criteria for every psychiatric disorder recognized by the U.S. healthcare system

DSM-V

4

Five-axis system to categorize mental illness

DSM-V

5

Axis: mood and thought disorders; responds to medication and psychotherapy

Axis I

6

Axis: mental retardation and personality disorders; unresponsive to treatment/medication

Axis II

7

Axis: medical conditions contributing to the psychological condition

Axis III

8

Axis: stressors that contribute to the overall psychological condition

Axis IV

9

Axis: GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning) score

Axis V

10

Conditions/disorders that must be ruled out before diagnosing a learning disorder

1. hearing/vision issues,
2. inadequate schooling,
3. language barriers,
4. lack of opportunity,
5. poor teaching

11

What mental health condition appears to be a major factor in stuttering?

anxiety

12

___ therapy can be beneficial or stuttering can resolve spontaneously

speech

13

GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning) is a number from __ to __ indicating the level of functioning

0 to 100; 0 lowest level, 100 highest level

14

Brain's ability to receive and process information is affected; causes children to learn in a manner that is not normal; standardized test performance are lower than expected for age

learning disorders

15

Learning disorders are also called learning ___ or learning ___

differences; disabilities

16

T or F. Children with learning disorders have a lower level of achievement despite the child's normal/above normal intelligence and adequate schooling

T

17


T or F. Learning disorders are no indication of intelligence level

T

18

Learning disorders are caused by underlying abnormalities in ____

cognitive processing

19

Children with learning disorders may respond to special instructional techniques and what type of drug therapy?

stimulants

20

Stuttering is a phonological or communication disorder with frequent ____ or ____ of sounds or syllables

repetitions; prolongations

21

Stuttering is also considered a ___ disorder

speech

22

Stuttering is treated through ___ therapy but may resolve spontaneously

speech

23

Severe impairments in several areas of development including communication and social interaction skills; includes particular behaviors that cause failure to develop peer relationships and interactions with others, including lack of nonverbal communication and lack of reciprocation of emotions

Pervasive Developmental Disorderse (PDD)

24

PDD are related directly to the person's ____ level or ____ age

developmental; mental

25

PDD category of disorders is called the ____ which consists of a broad group of developmental delays and disorders

autism spectrum

26

PDD affects these 3 skills

1. social communication
2. motor
3. language

27

5 specific disorders in PDD

1. autism
2. PDD-NOS
3. Rett's Syndrome
4. childhood disintegrative disorder
5. Asperger's Syndrome

28

Syndrome of extreme withdrawal and obsessive behavior; impairment in socialization, communication, activities, and normal peer relationships

autistic disorder and asperger's

29

Autism/Asperger onset occurs in infancy; manifestations apparent by __ or __ years

2/3

30

Four main symptoms of autistic disorder:

1. social isolation
2. cognitive impairment
3. language deficits
4. repetitive naturalistic motions

31

T or F. Autism has a delay in onset of speech while Asperger's has no delay in speech

T

32

Mild form of autism spectrum disorder without cognitive impairment; issues are more with social interaction and communication

Asperger's

33

Autism is not a ___ disorder so there is no singular cause

single

34

3 possible predisposing factors for autism

1. maternal rubella,
2. encephalitis,
3. phenylketonuria

35

Autism is __ times more common in males than in females

four

36

Autism/Asperger's treatment options

1. behavioral therapy
2. self instructed training
3. risperidone
4. SSRI antidepressants
5. antiepileptics
6. stimulants

37

Persistent inattention leading to hyperactivity and impulsivity

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

38

ADHD was previously called ___

attention-deficit disorder (ADD)

39

3 subtypes of ADHD

1. Predominantly Inattentive
2. Predominately Hyperactive-Impulsive
3. Combined

40

6 or more symptoms if inattention and fewer than 6 symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity going on for at least 6 months

predominantly inattentive ADHD

41

6 or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity but fewer than 6 of inattention going on for at least 6 months

predominately hyperactive-impulsive ADHD

42

6 or more symptoms of inattention and 6 or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity going on for at least 6 months

combined ADHD

43

ADHD is commonly treated with what type of drugs

stimulants

44

3 common stimulants to treat ADHD

1. dexedrine
2. ritaline
3. adderall

45

Other treatments for ADHD include ___ patch and vitamin supplementation including __ and ___

methylphenidate transdermal; zinc; melatonin

46

Behavior disorder in which children demonstrate behaviors that are oppositional toward adults

oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)

47

Most common referral complaint to counselors and a major source of family stress and is a strong predictor of poor outcomes

ODD

48

Four main causes of ODD

1. Negative child temperament and ADHD
2. Negative parent temperament
3. Ineffective child management
4. Parent and family stress events

49

3 treatment options for ODD

1. mood stabilizers
2. family therapy incorporating patient training
3. psychotherapy

50

Syndrome of multiple motor tics coupled with one or more vocal tics, appearing either simultaneously or at different times

Tourette's Disorder

51

Tourette's Disorder is also called ____

Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

52

Tourette's patients have ___ tics combined with ___ tics

motor; vocal

53

Tourette's can be caused by
___ infections

streptococcal

54

Streptococcal infections in Tourette's are caused by a reaction of antibodies to ____ and ____

Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus ; neuronal tissue

55

T or F. Tourette's is curable

F

56

Dementia: progressive degenerative disease of the brain that produces a typical profile of lost mental and physical functioning

Alzheimer's Disease (AD)

57

Most common cause of dementia, the deterioration in intellectual capacity

Alzheimer's

58

Alzheimer's is __ related and has __ basis in some families

age; genetic

59

There is a higher rate of Alzheimer's in people with a history of ___

head trauma

60

There is no cure for Alzheimers but treatment goal is to help ___

alleviate symptoms

61

Other causes of Alzheimer's include ___ changes in brain growth; ___ reaction; deficiency of ___ in the brain

biochemical; autoimmune; neurochemical

62

Drug that can alleviate cognitive symptoms, slowing the decline that occurs with Alzheimer's disease; can slow progression

Aricept

63

3 types of dementia

1. alzheimer's
2. vascular dementia
3. dementia due to head trauma

64

Dementia: reduction in blood flow to the brain resulting from narrowed and stenosed arteries

vascular dementia

65

In vascular dementia, the resulting hypoxia from stenosed arteries and reduced nourishment to the brain cells causes a general loss in ____

intellectual abilities

66

In vascular dementia, ____ grows in the carotid and cerebral arteries, blood flow to brain tissue is reduced

Atherosclerotic plaque

67

Ischemia from the resulting hypoxia in vascular dementia leads to irreversible ____ of the brain cells

necrosis

68

The treatment goal for vascular dementia is to increase the ___ to the brain

blood supply

69

Surgical intervention for vascular dementia that may limit the progress of the condition

carotid endarterectomy

70

Medications for vascular dementia have ___ effects to prevent stroke

antiplatelet

71

Traumatic insult causing reduced blood flow to the cerebrum; deprivation of oxygen and nutrition (ischemia) results in death of brain cells

dementia caused by head trauma

72

Dementia due to trauma is caused by ____, increased ____, or damage to the ____

edema; intracranial pressure; vessel walls

73

Dementia due to trauma can also be caused by ___ and ___ head injuries, hematomas and skull fractures

closed and open

74

Disorder of physical and psychological dependence on daily or regular excessive intake of alcoholic beverages

substance-related disorders: alcohol abuse or alcoholism

75

In alcoholism, chemical dependency can be ___ or can be accelerated by an ___ event

insidious; acute traumatic

76

Examples of non-substance related addictions

sex/ pornography/ gambling/ food/ shopping/ plastic surgery

77

6 possible causative factors for alcoholism

1. genetic/biologic factors
2. depression
3. emotional conflict
4. social factors
5. cultural attitudes
6. stress

78

Alcoholism is managed with group therapy and participation in this 12-step program

Alcoholics Anonymous

79

Major psychiatric disturbance; group of disorders that may result in chronic mental dysfunction, producing varying degrees of impairment

schizophrenia

80

2 important features of schizophrenia

1. disorganized thinking
2. inappropriate affect

81

schizophrenic feature: reflected by disturbances in language and communication

disorganized thinking

82

schizophrenic feature: lack of emotional expression or unreasonable outbursts of emotion

inappropriate affect

83

4 prodromal signs of schizophrenia

1. withdrawal
2. odd behavior
3. disheveled appearance
4. loss of interest in school or work

84

In its active phase, shizophrenia has a vast range of ___ and ___ manifestations along with ___ dysfunction

behavioral; perceptual; social

85

*Schizophrenia manifestation: an excess or distortion of normal functions

positive manifestations

86

5 positive manifestations of schizophrenia

1. delusions
2. hallucinations
3. disorganized speech
4. grossly disorganized
5. catatonic behavior

87

*Schizophrenia manifestation: loss of normal function

negative manifestations

88

3 negative manifestations of schizo.

1. affective flattening
2. alogia
3. avolition

89

Fixed false beliefs

delusions

90

Loss or lack of emotional expressiveness

affective flattening

91

Inability to speak because of mental defect, mental confusion, or aphasia. It is a speech disturbance

alogia

92

Reduction in the motivation to initiate or persist in goal-directed behaviour

avolition

93

Five subtypes of schizophrenia

1. paranoid
2. disorganized
3. catatonic
4. undifferentiated
5. residual

94

Genetic factors play a substantial role; biologic relatives of patients with schizophrenia have a ____ greater risk of this condition

tenfold

95

Schizo manifests in mid- to late ___

20s

96

The treatment goal for schizo is to help patient establish a better sense of self through ___, ___ or ___ treatments

personal; social; vocational

97

Schizo is also treated with ___ drugs and long term ___

antipsychotic drugs; multidimensional treatment

98

Major affective disorder with abnormally intense mood swings from a hyperactive, or manic, state to a depressive syndrome

bipolar disorder

99

T or F. Depression and mania can coexist in bipolar disorder

T

100

Bipolar disorder has no clear cause but may be due to ___ factors such as neurotransmitter levels in the brain

biochemical

101

Treatment during the manic phase of bipolar disorder

lithium carbonate

102

Treatment during the depressive phase of bipolar disorder

1. antidepressants
2. anticonvulsants

103

Antidepressants in bipolar disorder should be used with caution because they can trigger a ____

manic episode

104

Characterized by one or more major depressive episodes

major depressive disorder

105

Patients with major depressive disorder have no history of ___ or ___ episodes

manic; hypomanic

106

Major depressive disorder must be differentiated from _____: depression resulting from a difficult or stressful life circumstance

reactive depression

107

Major depressive disorder is treated with medication and what two types of therapy

1. psychotherapy
2. antidepressant therapy

108

Procedure used when a patient is severely incapacitated, has psychotic features or doesn't respond to other therapeutic measures

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

109

5 anxiety disorders

1. generalized anxiety
2. panic
3. phobic
4. obsessive compulsive
5. post-traumatic stress

110

Constant state of apparently causeless anxiety or free-floating anxiety

generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

111

GAD is often accompanied by ___ symptoms such as diarrhea, elevated blood pressure and sustained muscular tension

physiologic

112

Anxiety begins suddenly and unexpectedly in a panic attack, reaching its peak within 10 minutes

panic disorder

113

Attacks are accompanied by an impending doom, ____, ____, a feeling that the person is "going crazy", losing control or dying, and other symptoms

derealization; depersonalization

114

A patient has a panic disorder if he or she has __ panic attacks within a month or if one or more attacks are followed by a persistent ___ of having another attack

four; fear

115

Panic disorder is similar to generalized anxiety in that the anxiety is ____

unfocused

116

Panic disorder is different from GAD by its ____, ___ nature and greater severity

sudden, intermittent

117

Excessive, persistent and irrational fear and the avoidance of the phobic stimulus

phobic disorder

118

In phobic disorder, anxiety has a specific _____: some object or a situation that presents no real danger

focus

119

T or F. People with phobic disorder realize that their fears are irrational but feel powerless to prevent or control them

T

120

T or F. Phobic people design their lives to avoid the things they fear

T

121

Marked by the presence of obsessions and compulsions

obsessive-compulsive disorder

122

Persistent intrusions of unwanted thoughts

obsessions

123

Persistent urges to carry out specific actions

compulsions

124

People with obsessions often have thoughts of ___, ___, or ___. These people feel as though they have lost control their minds, which causes them anxiety

1. harming others
2. committing suicide, or
3. performing sexual acts considered immoral

125

People with compulsions develop ____ or ____ that relieve their anxiety temporarily like excessive handwashing

senseless actions; rituals

126

OCD can be caused by severe stress and is related to dysfunction in the ____ of the brain

frontal lobe

127

OCD is managed with ____ drugs, ____ on a short-term basis, hypnosis, systematic ____, progressive relaxation, breathing exercises and guided imagery

anxiolytic, benzodiazepines, desensitization

128

_____ may develop if OCD is untreated

psychotic depression

129

Delayed response to an external traumatic event that produces signs and symptoms of extreme distress

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

130

PTSD is different from other anxiety disorders because the cause of the stress is an ____ of an overwhelming painful nature

external event

131

Person may experience PTSD for weeks, months or even years (____ episode) after the event through painful recollections or ____

transitory; nightmares

132

PTSD caused by ____ tend to precipitate more severe reactions than PTSD caused by ____

human actions; natural dissasters

133

In some cases, the ____ of an event can be enough to cause PTSD

threat

134

Goal of treating PTSD: restore the individual's sense of ____ through counselling and drug therapy

control

135

Group of mental disorders in which the person experiences physical symptoms without the underlying organic cause

somatoform disorders

136

T or F. Symptoms are real to the affected person with a somatoform disorder

T

137

5 somatoform disorders

1. somatization disorder
2. conversion disorder
3. pain disorder
4. hypochondriasis
5. munchausen's syndrome

138

Typified by complaints of pain and GI, sexual, and neurotic symptoms without clinical basis

somatization disorder

139

Somatization disorder is also known as ___

briquet's syndrome

140

T or F. Somatization disorder occurs after the age of 30

F; before 30

141

3 systems affected by somatization disorder

1. GI
2. sexual
3. neurotic

142

Symptoms of somatization can intensify after a loss and during periods of severe ___

stress

143

Somatization disorders are treated with investigation of symptoms and ruling out any ___

underlying general medical condition

144

Anxiety is converted or changed to a physical or somatic symptom

conversion disorder

145

Conversion disorder is formerly called ___

hysteria

146

In conversion disorder, the anxiety is too difficult to face, and as a defense mechanism, the ____ allow the person to escape or avoid a stressful situation

physical symptoms

147

Four sensory symptoms of conversion disorder.

1. anesthesia
2. hyperesthesia
3. analgesia
4. paresthesia

148

Cause of conversion disorder

highly stressful situation(s)

149

Manifested by pain that causes significant distress and physical and social impairment

pain disorder

150

T or F. In pain disorder, pain is very real to the patient and takes control of the patient's activities

T

151

T or F. In pain disorder, the pain is not intentionally produced

T

152

Term for intentionally produced

malingering

153

Pain disorder is related to underlying clinical ____ that cause distress and have physical and social effects

pathologic conditions

154

___ and ___ contribute to the manifestation of pain disorder

pathologic; psychological

155

Drugs used to relieve intractable pain in pain disorder

narcotics

156

Preoccupation with fear of having a serious disease; excessive fear despite negative medical tests and reassurance that there is no clinical basis for their symptoms

hypochondriasis

157

Patients mistake aches and pains without ___ for serious illnesses; symptoms generally vague

clinical basis

158

Patient simulates symptoms of illness and presents for no apparent reason other than treatment

Munchausen's Syndrome

159

Münchausen’s Syndrome is also called ____

factitious disorder

160

T or F. In Munchausen's, patients know that they are not ill but seek medical attention so they can draw attention to themselves

T

161

Occurs when the parent projects symptoms onto their child instead of themselves

Münchausen’s Syndrome by proxy

162

T or F. Munchausen's syndrome is treatable

F.

163

Conditions in which an individual feels a powerful connection with the opposite sex and wants to be the
other sex

gender identity disorders

164

Gender identity disorders are managed with ___ to recognize and acknowledge the feelings

psychological counselling

165

People with gender identity disorders may undergo ____ to reconcile their inner identity with their body

sex reassignment

166

Sex reassignment is achieved through ___ and ___

hormone treatment; surgical intervention

167

Patient has difficulty in falling asleep and/or staying asleep; individual arises physically and mentally tired, groggy, tense, irritable, and anxious

insomnia

168

Some patients suffering from insomnia experience extremely early morning awakening and report that their sleep was not ____

restorative

169

How long must the difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep persist before it is diagnosed as insomnia?

one month

170

Causes of insomnia

1. travel/jet lag
2. medical problem
3. pain
4. change to high altitudes
5. thyroid conditions
6. stimulants (caffeine/alcohol)
7. anxiety
8. stress
9. fear of sleeplessness

171

Insomnia is treated through identify and removing the ____, attempting to improve ____, and ____ changes to relieve tension and reduce stress

underlying cause; sleep hygiene; lifestyle

172

Group of sleep disorders usually occurring in children including sleepwalking, night terrors and nightmares; often includes dreams

parasomnias

173

parasomnias are also known as ____

sleep arousal disorders

174

T or F. People who sleepwalk generally have no memory of the event and patients wake up confused and are unaware of the environment

T

175

When parasomnias have a late onset, a ____ is the cause

CNS pathologic process

176

4 possible causes of parasomnias

1. Possible genetic, developmental, psychological, and organic factors
2. Febrile episodes
3. Brain tumors
4. Lithium and certain drugs

177

T or F. Children usually outgrow parasomnias

T

178

The goal of treating parasomnias is protection from ___

injury

179

Parasomnias may be exacerbated by exposure to ___ especially from movies and TV

terror

180

Adults with parasomnias are treated with these 2 drugs

1. zolpidem
2. zaleplon

181

CHRONIC NEUROLOGIC where there is an overwhelming recurring compulsion to fall asleep

narcolepsy

182

In narcolepsy, irresistible and involuntary daytime sleep episodes have a duration of ___ to ___

few seconds to half hour

183

T or F. Narcolepsy onset before 25 years

T

184

Narcolepsy is characterized by a _-minute long period of ___ where the person is unable to move but breathing continues

1; sleep paralysis

185

Narcoleptics may have a ____ of REM sleep time

genetic aberration

186

Types of drugs that treat narcolepsy

stimulants; wakefulness-promoting drugs

187

Potentially life-threatening sleep disorder with intermittent short periods of breathing cessation during sleep



sleep apnea

188

2 types of sleep apnea

1. obstructive
2. central

189

Type of sleep apnea: more common; air is unable to flow in or out of the upper airway but attempts to breathe continue

obstructive

190

Type of sleep apnea: brain doesn't send appropriate messages to the intercostals and diaphragm to initiate the breathing process

central

191

In central sleep apnea, Patient can experience __ or more periods of sleep apnea in an hour

20

192

Most common cause of sleep apnea

nasal obstruction

193

Obesity can cause extra tissue to develop in the throat, causing a ____ leading to sleep apnea

mechanical obstruction

194

Three main treatments for sleep apnea

1. weight loss
2. constant positive air pressure (CPAP)
3. UPPP or uvulopalatopharyngoplasty

195

Pattern of behavior that deviates from society's norms

personality disorder (PDO/PD)

196

People with personality disorders typically have thoughts about themselves and the world that cause ____

inappropriate behavior

197

Signs of PDO/PD become obvious during ____

adolescence

198

Number of personality disorders

10

199

Number of clusters these 10 disorders are organized into

3

200

Cluster where patients appear odd or eccentric

Cluster A; "mad'

201

Cluster where patients appear dramatic, emotional, or erratic;

Cluster B; "bad"

202

Cluster where patients appear anxious or fearful

Cluster C; "sad

203

PDO are of possible ___, ___ or ___ origins

biologic, social, psychodynamic

204

The goal of treating PDO is to improve ____ mechanisms and control of symptoms

mechanisms

205

Behavioral training in PDO

dialectical behavioral training

206

PDO can be maanged with treatment of ____ like anxiety and depression

comorbid conditions

207

Cluster A Mad PD: Individuals do not trust others and are suspicious of others, assume others will deliberately exploit, harm, or deceive them, and often misinterpret the meaning behind others' behaviors

paranoid PD

208

Cluster A Mad PD: Individuals appear to lack, or show emotions of, pleasure or pain, tend to be loners and do not enjoy relationships with others, and appear to be indifferent, flattened, or detached

schizoid PD

209

Cluster A Mad PD: Believe they have magical control over others; usually seek treatment for associated symptoms of anxiety or depression

schizotypal PD

210

Schizoid and schizotypal are similar in that they have difficulty with ____

social relationships

211

Schizoid is different from Schizoid PD in that individuals typically have ideas of ____

reference

212

T or F. Schizotypal PD may be superstitious or preoccupied with paranoid phenomena

T

213

3 PDO in Cluster A - "mad"

1. paranoid
2. schizoid
3. schizotypal

214

3 PDO in Cluster B - "bad"

1. antisocial
2. borderline
3. histrionic

215

Cluster B Bad PD: Individuals have a disregard for, and tend to violate, the rights of others, fail to conform to societal norms and often engage in behavior that could be grounds for arrest

antisocial PD

216

Cluster B Bad PD: Aggressive, manipulative, and reckless behavior; individuals do not generally show remorse or make amends for their behavior

antisocial PD

217

Cluster B Bad PD: Individual has a pattern of unstable interpersonal relationships, self-image and affects (feelings) with impending separation or rejection as central concerns

borderline PD

218

When those with borderline PD believe they are being rejected or abandoned, they often react with ____; manifests as extreme sarcasm, verbal outbursts and/or manipulative behavior

extreme emotions

219

Cluster B Bad PD: Individual displays overly dramatic and theatrical mannerisms and have a conscious or pervasive need to be the center of attention

histrionic PD

220

Cluster B Bad PD: Individuals are immature and dependent, constantly seeking approval and reassurance; behavior or appearance may be inappropriately seductive

histrionic PD

221

Cluster B Bad PD: Individuals exhibit pathologic self-love or grandiose self-admiration; lack empathy and tend to exploit others

narcissistic PD

222

When criticized, narcissistic individuals react with rage or humiliation, based on an exaggerated sense of ____

self-importance

223

Narcissists are preoccupied with fantasies of ____

unlimited success

224

Cluster C Sad PD: Individual avoids any social situation because of fears of criticism, disapproval or rejection and view themselves as socially inept, personally unappealing and inferior to others

avoidant PD

225

T or F. Avoidant PD are preoccupied with being judged and criticized by their peers

T

226

Cluster C Sad PD: Individual has a pattern of excessively relying on others to make decisions for them; are passive and have trouble disagreeing with others because they fear losing support or approval

dependent PD

227

Cluster C Sad PD: Extreme pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and mental and interpersonal control; preoccupation with details or lists to the point that they never finish a task

obsessive compulsive PD