Outcome 17 Trauma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Outcome 17 Trauma Deck (142):
1

3 causes of trauma

1. accidental
2. self-inflicted
3. violence

2

4 major types of trauma

1. open
2. assault
3. thermal
4. psychological

3

type of child abuse most commonly observed

physical abuse due to injuries

4

2 types of issues considered neglect

1. not providing food or shelter
2. leaving young children unattended

5

potential causes of child abuse/neglect

1. emotional maturity of the abuser
2. stress due to economic, social, or employment difficulties
3. poor parenting skills
4. history of abuse in the perpetrator
5. unrealistic expectation of the child
6. limitations of a physically or mentally challenged child

6

3 symptoms in combination that indicate a shaken infant syndrome (SIS) diagnosis

1. subdural hematoma
2. cerebral edema
3. retinal hemorrhage

7

caused by repeated rapid shaking of an infant due to caregiver irritation

shaken infant syndrome (SIS)

8

shaken infant syndrome (SIS) can also be due to ____ and catching them

tossing a baby into the air

9

shaken infant syndrome (SIS) can also occur due to jostling a baby in a ____ as the caregiver jogs or runs

back pack

10

7 types of actions considered as elder abuse

1. physical abuse
2. self-neglect
3. verbal abuse
4. psychological abuse
5. abandonment
6. violation of personal rights
7. financial abuse

11

two forms of psychological or verbal use

1. active
2. passive

12

psychological or verbal use is hard to diagnose because there is no ____ evidence

physical

13

4 contributing factors of intimate partner violence (IPV)

1. stress
2. alcohol
3. cultural and societal values that make wives "property"
4. expectation of submission

14

5 causes of sexual abuse

1. domination
2. control
3. power issues
4. history of sexual abuse in the perpetrator
5. sociopathic approach to society and its norms

15

t or f: rape/sexual assault are crimes of violence and domination, not a sexual act

t

16

rape/sexual assault includes these

1. date rape
2. acquaintance rape
3. spousal rape
4. violent act by an unknown assailant

17

cause of an abrasion

friction

18

3 types of avulsion

1. partial
2. degloving injury
3. amputation

19

avulsion where avulsed tissue is still partially attached

partial avulsion

20

avulsion where the full thickness of skin is peeled away from the body such as the hand or foot

degloving injury

21

avulsion where a limb or appendage is completely severed

amputation

22

usual cause of an avulsion

entanglement in machinery, clothing, or some other means of entrapment

23

body parts most often involved in crush injuries

1. fingers
2. hand
3. toe
4. foot

24

it is important that underlying structures and tissues are inspected thoroughly with a puncture wound because ____ is often ____

bleeding; minimal

25

silent STD that often has no symptoms and unknowingly sexually transmitted

chlamydia

26

in chlamydia, high percentage of ___ have no symptoms before dangerous complications start

women

27

infection of the genitourinary tract

gonorrhea

28

symptoms of gonorrhea in males

purulent discharge

29

symptoms of gonorrhea in females

purulent discharge
dysuria

30

protozoal infection of lower genitourinary tract

trichomoniasis

31

trichomoniasis affects the ___ in women and ___ in men

vagina; urethra

32

incurable, recurrent infection of skin of genital area, with ulcerations spread by direct skin to skin contact causing painful genital sores

genital herpes

33

genital infection that causes raised cauliflower-like growths in or near the vagina, rectum or along the penis

condylomata acuminata/genital warts

34

chronic, systemic STD; presence of painless but highly contagious local lesions called chancre on the genitalia

syphilis

35

soft chancre

chancroid

36

bacterial infection of genitalia causing necrotizing ulceration and lymphadenopathy

chancroid

37

physical, psychological, sexual injury to a child

child abuse

38

considered a form of child abuse

neglect

39

signs of psychological abuse is evident in ___ of the child

actions

40

sexual abuse is discovered ___ when complaints by child of discomfort in genital region

collaterally

41

injuries incurred by infant who has been shaken forcibly enough to cause intracerebral bleeding with resulting closed head injury

shaken infant syndrome (SIS)

42

another term for shaken infant syndrome (SIS)

shaken baby syndrome (SBS)

43

intentional and systematic diminishment of another's self worth or self esteem

psychological or verbal abuse

44

most frequent victims of psychological or verbal abuse

children

45

threatened or actual phsyical abuse; pattern of behavior where victim is repeatedly physically assaulted by partner

intimate partner violence (IPV)

46

3 other terms for intimate partner violence

1. domestic abuse
2. spousal abuse
3. battered spouse syndrome

47

any form of nonconsensual sexual contact or activity

sexual abuse

48

intercourse forced on victim against his or her will

rape/sexual assault

49

outer layer of skin scraped away exposing deeper layer of skin

abrasions

50

4 other terms for abrasions

1. friction burns
2. floor burns
3. rug burns
4. road rash

51

portion of skin and possibly underlying tissue torn away either partially or completely

avulsion

52

occurs when part of body is compressed with extreme force between two surfaces

crushing injuries

53

4 most common body parts affected by crushing injuries

1. fingers
2. hands
3. toes
4. feet

54

result of pointed or sharp foreign body penetrating soft tissue

puncture wounds

55

t or f. puncture wounds usually cause pain and very little bleeding

t

56

foreign body which caused injury that is protruding out of the wound

puncture wounds

57

sharp object cuts skin and possibly underlying soft tissue

laceration

58

laceration vs incision

laceration: jagged edges
incision: smooth edges

59

anything entering a portion of body where it does not belong is considered ___

foreign body

60

4 common bodies in ear

1. bugs
2. putting things in ear
3. vegetative foreign bodies
4. cotton from cotton swabs

61

3 treatments for foreign bodies in ear

1. forceps removal
2. gentle sunctioning
3. washing or syringing ear

62

live bugs in ear may crawl out because of __

light

63

objects in eye that would normally not be found in the eye

foreign bodies in eye

64

treatment for foreign body in eye: gentle ___ with normal ___ to flush

irrigation; saline

65

another treatment for foreign body in eye is ___ used when foreign body is embedded in eye

eye spud

66

any object or foreign material causing obstruction in nares

foreign bodies in nose

67

children have tendency to insert foreign bodies in ___

nose

68

result of thermal insults to to tissue

burns

69

thermal insults can be caused by either ___ or ___ such as burns or frostbite

hot; cold

70

burns are caused by exposure of skin to these 8 factors

1. flame
2. dry heat
3. liquid scalds
4. burns
5. radiation
6. chemicals
7. sun
8. electricity

71

assessment tool used to quickly calculate the percent of skin surface area burned

rule of nines

72

3 treatment options for burns

1. surgically
2. debridement
3. skin grafts

73

injury resulting from exposure to or contact with electricity

electrical shock

74

major concern with electrical shock

development of cardiac dysrhythmias

75

in electrical shock, the current follows this path through body

path of least resistance

76

current usually follows along ___ routes

nerve

77

injury occurring when individual is struck directly or indirectly (splash effect) by lightning

lightning injuries

78

lightning can strike in these 5 different ways

1. direct strike
2. contact strike
3. side flash
4. stride potential
5. ground current

79

lightning strike directly by lightning discharge

direct strike

80

lightning strikes object contacted, causing transfer of energy

contact strike

81

lightning strikes object, travels a certain distance and "jumps" through the air and strikes person

side flash

82

lightning strike current enters one leg and exits out the other

stride potential

83

lightening hits ground and travels to person by way of ground

ground current

84

when body temperature is much higher than normal body temp of 98.6 Fahrenheit

extreme heat

85

extreme heat includes these 2 conditions

1. heat exhaustion
2. heat stroke

86

another term for extreme heat

hyperthermia

87

body's heat regulating system is unable to cope with severe heat; more serious hyperthermia condition

heat stroke

88

in heat stroke, the individual stops ____

sweating

89

body temp in heat stroke

105 F or 40.5 C

90

results from salt or water depletion; less serious hyperthermia condition but can progress if untreated

heat exhaustion

91

generalized cooling of the body where core temp drops below 95F or 35C

extreme cold

92

another term for extreme cold

hypothermia

93

3 causes for hypothermia

1. other cause
2. cold water
3. cold winds and environment

94

frozen or extremely cold tissue, usually on face, ears fingers and toes

frostbite

95

frostbite causes affected skin to become ___

white or ashen

96

person affected does not realize frostbite is happening due to ___ as tissue freezes

nerve loss

97

never be done to treat frost bite

rubbing skin area

98

patients with frostbite should never be given ___

alcohol

99

bite or sting from any insect or arthropod, which may involve injection of venom

insect bites

100

3 types of insect bites that require immediate medical attention

1. scorpions
2. black widows
3. brown recluse spider

101

to treat insect bites, remove stinger by scraping across site of sting with ____ or ____

plastic card; fingernail

102

use of forceps/tweezers to remove sting in insect bites may squeeze more ___ into site

venom

103

severe systemic infection that does not transmit from person to person

rocky mountain spotted fever/tick bite

104

rocky mountain spotted fever/tick bite is more commonly called ___ in the US

rickettsial disease

105

symptom of rocky mountain spotted fever/tick bite

small hemorrhage appear under skin

106

rash occuring in rocky mountain spotted fever/tick bite

maculopapular rash

107

rocky mountain spotted fever/tick bite causative organism in bloodstream

Rickettsia Rickettsii

108

Rickettsia Rickettsii gets into blood stream due to ____

prolonged wood tick bite

109

malaria is a severe generalized infection caused by bite of ____ infected with ____

Anopheles mosquito; Plasmodium protozoa

110

3 elements in the cycle of symptoms in malaria

1. chills
2. fever
3. sweats

111

symptoms of malaria last __ weeks

1-4

112

antimalarial drug given orally

chloroquine

113

source may be human, pet, wild animal

animal bites/human bites

114

treat animal/human bites by ____ to remove bacteria and contaminations

cleanse wound

115

animal/human bites may be treated by ___ surgery in some cases

plastic surgery

116

animal bites are treated with ___ if not possible to determine whether animal is rabid

rabies injections

117

penetrating tissue wound made by fangs or teeth of a snake

snakebites

118

4 poisonous rattlesnakes

1. rattlesnakes
2. copperheads
3. water moccasins
4. coral snakes

119

drug to treat snakebites

antivenin

120

when bitten by snake, ___ should not be applied

cold

121

when bitten by snake, would should not be ___

cut

122

when bitten by snake, ____ or ___ should not be applied

tourniquets; electrical shock

123

entrapment and compression of median nerve in the carpal tunnel causing pain and numbness in wrist, hands and fingers

carpal tunnel syndrome

124

2 diagnostic tests for carpal tunnel syndrome

1. median nerve percussion
2. phalen wrist flexor

125

carpal tunnel syndrome test where examiner taps his/her finger along the inside of affected wrist

median nerve percussion test

126

sign revealed in a median nerve percussion test

Tinel sign

127

carpal tunnel syndrome test where patient presses backs of hands together to bend wrist as far down as possible without applying force

phalen wrist flexor test

128

inflammatory condition of tissue at the distal portion of humerus

tennis elbow

129

medical term for tennis elbow

lateral humeral epicondylitis

130

5 treatment options for tennis elbow

1. stop repetitive tasks
2. rest
3. wearing brace
4. ice packs
5. steroid injections

131

drug family used to treat tennis elbow

NSAIDs

132

index finger has lump or know appearing on flexor tendon

trigger finger

133

medical term for trigger finger

stenosing tenosynovitis

134

compression of brachial plexus nerves

thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS)

135

another term for thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS)

brachial plexus injury

136

thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is caused by repetitive tasks causing ____ of arms

continual hyperabduction

137

thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is also caused by continuous dropping of these 4 body parts

1. cervical rib
2. fibrous band
3. shoulder girdle
4. fibrous band that develops around the nerve plexus

138

inflammation of tendon usually caused by insult or injury to tendon

tendinitis/tendonitis

139

tendinitis/tendonitis is often associated with these 2 conditions

1. calcium deposits and/or
2. bursa around tendon

140

in frozen shoulder, adhesions are released ____

surgically

141

3 causes of trauma

1. accidental
2. self-inflicted
3. violence

142

4 major types of trauma

1. open
2. assault
3. thermal
4. psychological