Outcome 8 Endocrinology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Outcome 8 Endocrinology Deck (154):
1

Abnormal growth and stature

gigantism

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*5 pituitary gland diseases also

1. gigantism
2. acromegaly
3. hypopituitarism
4. dwarfism
5. diabetes insipidus

3

Gigantism is caused by the excessive production and secretion of ____ hormones

pituitary

4

*Gigantism occurs when there is a hypersecretion of ____ from the anterior pituitary or adenoma before ____

growth hormone; puberty

5

Child with gigantism experience abnormal growth because the ____ has not begun

epiphyseal closure

6

Gigantism is treated by reducing the amount of ___ secreted

growth hormone

7

How is surgery reducing the amount of growth hormone performed?

transsphenoidal approach

8

Chronic metabolic condition of adults with overgrowth of soft tissue and the bones of face, hands and feet

acromegaly

9

Which 3 bones are commonly affected by acromegaly?

bones of face, hands and feet

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*Acromegaly is caused by the hypersecretion of ____ from the anterior pituitary or adenoma after ___

growth hormone; after puberty

11

Acromegaly is treated by reducing the amount of ___, ___ approach, and reverse or preventing ____ effects

growth hormone; transsphenoidal approach; tumor mass

12

Condition caused by deficiency or absence of any pituitary hormones

hypopituitarism

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In hypopituitarism there is a deficiency or absence of hormones especially produced by the ____

anterior pituitary

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Hypopituitarism produces ____ in children

growth retardation

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Hypopituitarism can be genital or acquired ad may be caused by ___ tumor or tumor of the ___

pituitary; hypothalamus

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Hypopituitarism is also caused by damage to the pituitary gland caused by ____, ischemia of ____, tumor, or ____ fracture

radiation; gland; basilar skull

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*Destruction of entire anterior lobe and none of anterior pituitary hormones are secreted; occurs mostly in women

panhypopituitarism

18

What 3 factors determine the treatment of hypopituitarism?

1. age
2. severity
3. underlying cause

19

Hypopituitarism is also treated with hormone relacement therapy with these 4 hormones

1. thyroxine
2. cortisone
3. sex hormones
4. somatropin (hGH)

20

Abnormal underdevelopment occuring in children

dwarfism

21

Dwarfism is ____ occurring in children

hypopituitarism

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Dwarfism can be congenital or can result from ____ after the birth process

cranial hemorrhage

23

Dwarfism is treated by administering ____ until child reaches height of ____ feet

somatotropin (hGH); 5 feet

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Patients with dwarfism may need replacement of ___, ___, or ___ hormones

thyroid; adrenal; sex

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* Disturbance of water metabolism resulting in polyuria and polydipsia

diabetes insipidus

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Excessive amount of colorless and dilute urine

polyuria

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Excessive thirst; deficiency in the release of vasopressin

polydipsia

28

Diabetes resulting from renal tubular resistance to action of vasopressin; more common in men

nephrogenic diabetes

29

Diabetes insipidus occurs when the ____ pituitary releases reduced amounts of ____

posterior; vasopressin

30

Diabetes inspidus may be hereditary, a result of insult to the ____ or ____ gland, head trauma, cerebral edema, or intracranial lesion

hypothalamus; pituitary

31

Diabetes insipidus is managed with ____ injections, ____ spray or ____ (DDAVP)

vasopressin; nasal; oral desmopressin acetate (DDAVP)

32

Nephrogenic diabetes is managed with ____

thiazide diuretics

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Thiazide diuretics block the ability of kidneys to excrete ___ and increases excretion of ___ and ____

water; sodium chloride; water

34

2 types of hyperpituitarism

1. gigantism
2. acromegaly

35

*5 thyroid gland diseases

1. simple goiter
2. Hashimoto's thyroiditis
3. Hyperthyroidism
4. Cretinism
5. Myxedema

36

Enlargement or hyperplasia of thyroid gland usually with swelling in the neck area; asymptomatic in early stages

simple goiter

37

Simple goiter is also called ____

non-toxic goiter

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Simple goiter can produce ___ or difficulty breathing

dyspnea

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Simple goiter is caused by a shortage of ___ in diet

iodine

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Simple goiter is treated with one drop per week of saturated solution of _____

potassium iodide

41

Unresponsive simple goiter is excised using what surgical procedure

subtotal thyroidectomy

42

Chronic disease of immune system that attacks the thyroid gland

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

43

Hashimoto's is also called ___

chronic thyroiditis

44

Hashimoto's is accompanied by gradual and painless lumpy enlargement of the ____ causing pressure in neck and difficulty swallowing

thyroid gland

45

Hashimoto's occurs in women __ times more than in men and is most common between ages 45-65

8 times

46

Hashimoto's has a hereditary pattern and may also be caused by ____

autoimmune disorders

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Hashimoto's is treated with a lifelong replacement of _____ hormones; this treatment prevents further growth of goiter

thyroid hormones

48

Condition of primary hyperthyroidism where entire thyroid gland hypertrophies

Hyperthyroidism

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Hyperthyroidism is also known as ____

Graves' disease

50

When the thyroid gland hypertrophies in hyperthyroidism, this results in ____ goiter and overproduction of ____ hormones

diffuse; thyroid

51

Sudden exacerbation of hyperthyroidism, also called ___ or ___, can be life-threatening

thyrotoxicosis; thyroid storm

52

Hyperthyroidism is believed to be an ______ response

autoimmune

53

The goal of treating hyperthyroidism is to reduce formation and secretion of ____ hormones

thyroid

54

Hyperthyroidism is treated with ____ drugs, ____ therapy or ____-ectomy

anti-thyroid drugs; radioactive iodine therapy; thyroidectomy

55

____ are given to treat tachycardia and hypertension associated with hyperthyroidism

B-Blockers

56

2 types of hypothyroidism

1. cretinism
2. myxedema

57

*Congenital hypothyroidism developing in infancy or early childhood where the thyroid gland is absent or thyroid hormone is not synthesized by thyroid gland

cretinism

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Cretinism is caused by ____ in fetal development

error

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Cretinism is caused by the congenital absence of ___ required for ___ and ___ synthesis

enzymes; T3; T4

60

Cretinism may also be caused by ____ deficient diets, ___ thyroid deficiency, or taking ____ drugs during pregnancy

iodine; maternal; anti-thyroid

61

Early treatment with thyroid hormone promotes normal physical growth for patients with cretinism, but this may not prevent _____

mental retardation

62

_____ therapy is required throughout the life of a patient with cretinism

hormone replacement therapy

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*Severe acquired hypothyroidism with reduced levels of T4 developing in older child or adult

myxedema

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Myxedema usually occurs in females, who experience ____

menorrhagia

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Myxedema is caused by the impairment of the thyroid gland's ability to synthesize ___

T4

66

Myxedema may also be due to reduced amounts of _____, ____ of thyroid gland, surgical removal of gland without ____ surgery, or a tumor

thyrotropin; radiation destruction; T4 replacement surgery

67

Common cause for hypothyroidism in children is _____

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

68

The goal of treating myxedema is to achieve normal ____ function with the lowest possible ____

thyroid; dose

69

Myxedemia is treated with life-long replacement therapy and administering _____

Levothyroxine sodium (T4)

70

2 parathyroid gland diseases

1. hyperparathyroidism
2. hypoparathyroidism

71

Parathyroid hormones increase blood ____ level by stimulating bone ____ and increasing absorption of ____ in digestive tract/kidneys

calcium; demineraization; calcium

72

Overproduction of parathyroid hormones (PTH)

hyperparathyroidism

73

Increases breakdown of bone, resulting in hypercalcemia

hyperparathyroidism

74

Excessive reabsorption of calcium in blood

hypercalcemia

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Hyperparathyroidism is twice as common in women and incidence rises sharply after age ___

40

76

Hyperparathyroidism is caused by overactivity of one or more of the four ____ glands

parathyroid

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Overactivity of the parathyroid glands is usually a result of an excessive growth, or ____, or an ____ of the gland

adenoma; idiopathic hyperplasia

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Hyperparathyroidism is also caused by an increased secretion of PTH induced by low level of ____ of ____

serum calcium; vitamin D

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If hyperparathyroidisim is caused by an adenoma, the tumor is removed by ____ surgery

minimally invasive

80

*If hyperparathyroidism is caused by hyperplasia, ___ of 4 glands are usually removed

3.5

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When hyperparathyroidism is secondary, the underlying cause is treated and ____ levels reduced

blood serum calcium

82

Secretion of parathyroid hormone by parathyroid glands is greatly reduced

hypoparathyroidism

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In hypoparathyroidism, circulating ____ is reduced, resulting in hypocalcemia

calcium

84

In hypoparathyroidism, there are decreased deposits of ____ in tissue

calcium

85

Surgical reimplantation of ____ following ____ can help with postop hypoparathyroidism

parathyroid; thyroidectomy

86

The most common cause of hypoparathyroidism is surgical destruction of _____

parathyroid glands

87

Hypoparathyroidism may also be caused by raised ____ levels which by ____ causes decreased ____

blood calcium; negative feedback; PTH output

88

Acquired hypoparathyroidism results from these 5 things

1. injury
2. ischemia
3. radiation
4. neoplasia
5. various disease process

89

Presence of ____ is a sure indication of hypocalcemia

Trousseau's phenomenon

90

*Trousseau's phenomenon

--

91

Hypoparathyroidism is treated with ____ replacement therapy with Vitamin ___ to reduce hypocalcemia

calcium; D

92

In case of life threatening deficiency or tetany, hypoparathyroidism is treated with ____ administered ___ and followed by a ____ diet

calcium gluconate; intravenously; high-calcium diet

93

2 adrenal gland diseases

1. Cushing's syndrome
2. Addison's disease

94

Condition of chronic hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex, resulting in excessive circulating cortisol levels

Cushing's syndrome

95

4 key characteristics of Cushing's Syndrome

1. moon face
2. buffalo hump
3. gross obesity of trunk
4. specific patterns of fat deposits

96

Cushing's syndrome is caused by ____ of the ____ gland

hyperplasia; adrenal

97

Cushing's is also caused by excessive secretion of ____ from pituitary

corticotropin (ACTH)

98

Cushing's can also be caused by tumor of ____, production of _____ in another organ like cancer cells in lungs, and iatrogenic conditions (such as prolonged administration of large doses of _____)

adrenal cortex; corticotropin; glucocorticoids

99

Cushing's is treated with drug therapy to suppress ____ secretion, radiation or _____ when tumor is the cause

ACTH secretion; surgical removal

100

Partial or complete failure of adrenocortical function

Addison's disease

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Addison's disease is also called ____ or ____

adrenal insufficiency; hypoadrenalism

102

The key physical characteristic of Addison's disease

bronze skin colour

103

Addison's is usually a gradual, progressive ____ of adrenal gland and reduction of important hormones

destruction

104

Destruction can result from the ____ process, tuberculosis, hemorrhage, fungal infections, neoplasms, or surgical resection of a gland

autoimmune

105

Addison's is secondary to ____

hypopituitarism

106

Addison's is treated by replacing natural hormones with ____ and ____ drugs

glucocorticoid; mineralocorticoid

107

Insuffiency or sudden decrease in adrenocortical hormone levels

Addisonian Crisis

108

Addisonian Crisis is a life-threatening emergency that can lead to ___, ___, and ___

shock, seizures, coma

109

*Chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism caused by inadequate production of insulin by pancreas of faulty use of insulin by cells

diabetes mellitus

110

How many types of diabetes mellitus?

2

111

Both forms of diabetes in most causes cause is unknown, but seems to be linked _____

genetically

112

Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine ____ of the ____

dysfunction; pancreas

113

Early, abrupt onset usually before age 30 with little or no insulin being secreted

DM I

114

DM I is formerly known as ___ or ___

juvenile-onset diabetes; insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)

115

DM I: infection early in life may trigger _____ that produces antibodies, destroying ____ in pancreas

autoimmune process; B cells

116

DM I is also caused by insufficient ____ producing cells

insulin

117

DM I is treated with _____ replacement therapy with calculated ____ on a regular schedule

insulin; caloric intake

118

4 methods of insulin delivery

1. injection
2. insulin pump therapy
3. insulin inhalers
4. insulin pens

119

Most common form of DM; gradual onset in adults

DM II

120

DM II occurs in adults over __ and more often people over __

30; 55

121

DM II is formerly known as ___ or ___

adult-onset diabetes; non-insulin dependent DM (NIDDM)

122

In DM II, some ____ remain, permitting control of symptoms by dietary management

pancreatic functions

123

DM is caused by destruction of the ____, trauma to the ___ or other ____ disorders

pancreas; pituitary gland; endocrine disorders

124

4 other causes of DM II

1. obesity
2. tumor
3. drugs
4. familial patterns

125

DM II is managed through dietary management, exercise, and ___ medications

oral hypogylcemic

126

In DM II, ___ may be required if other treatments don't adequately control it

insulin

127

DM II doesn't usually require ____ injections to control ____ levels

insulin; glucose

128

2 endocrine dysfunctions of the pancreas

1. DM
2. hypoglycemia

129

Abnormally low glucose level in blood

hypoglycemia

130

Hypoglycemia occurs when insulin enters ____ or when ____ falls below tissue demands

bloodstream; glucose release rate

131

Hypoglycemia can be classified under what 2 types?

1. drug-induced
2. non-drug induced

132

What is the most common type of hypogylcemia, also known as reactive hypoglycemia?

Drug induced

133

Drug induced hypoglycemia is caused by ____ in a diabetic subject

insulin overdose

134

Drug induced hypoglycemia may also be triggered by significantly elevated ____ levels

blood alcohol

135

5 causes of non drug-induced hypoglycemia

1. fasting
2. delayed secretion of insulin by pancreas
3. excessive secretion of insulin by pancreas
4. gastrointestinal disorders
5. hereditary or endocrine disorders

136

The priority of treating hypoglycemia is restoring a normal ____ level through IV infusion of ____

glucose

137

The hormone ___ may also be given to counteract insulin in hypoglycemia

glucagon

138

2 types of precocious puberty

1. in boys
2. in girls

139

Onset of puberty in boys before age ___; normal puberty begins between 13-15 years

9

140

Early development of secondary sex characteristics, gonadal development, spermatogenesis, growth of pubic and facial hair, and sebaceous gland activity increases

precocious puberty in boys

141

Precocious puberty in boys may be genetic, but can be traced to ___ dysfunctions that secrete excessive ____ hormones

pituitary; gonadotropic

142

Precocious puberty in boys may also be induced by ____ tumors or other ____ disorders

testicular tumors; endocrine disorders

143

Precocious puberty in boys may also be caused by neoplasm in ____ gland or the ____

pituitary; hypothalamus

144

T or F. When p. puberty in boys is idiopathic, no specific treatment is required

T

145

P. puberty in boys is treated with hormones to suppress _____ until appropriate time

sexual maturation

146

When associated with tumors, p. puberty in boys is treated _____

invasively

147

Onset of puberty before age ___ in girls with increased growth rate, breast enlargement, growth of pubic and underarm hair

8

148

Girls with p. puberty have menarche before age __

10

149

T or F. P. puberty in girls is mostly idiopathic without associated abnormalities

T

150

P. puberty in girls may be caused by meningitis, ____ tumors, ingestion of ____

intracranial; oral contraceptives

151

P. puberty in girls is treated with _____ and may require ____ for emotional problems

hormone therapy; emotional

152

Levels of circulating calcium in blood ____ in hypoparathyroidism

decreases

153

Treatment for life-threatening cases of hypoparathyroidism

IV calcium gluconate

154

Cushing's Syndrome esults in excessive circulating levels of _____

cortisol