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Flashcards in Outcome 2 ENT Deck (125):
1

Acute inflammatory process affecting the mucus membrane that lines the upper respiratory tract

common cold/upper respiratory tract infection (URI/URTI)

2

Caused by almost 200 different viruses that are part of normal body flora

common cold/URI/URTI

3

Group of viruses responsible for 1/2 of the 200 viruses that cause the common cold

rhinoviruses

4

Controversial treatment for colds

oral antihistamines

5

When do ordinary colds and bacterial colds usually resolve?

ordinary cold: 4-5 days
bacterial: 7-10 days

6

SInusitis is the acute or chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes of the ______

paranasal sinuses

7

Sinusitis is caused by ___, ___ and ___ that travel to the sinuses from the nose; often occurs after the patient has been infected by the common cold

virus, fungus, bacteria

8

What is another cause of sinusitis?

Any condition that blocks sinus drainage and ventilation

9

Treatment: saline nasal sprays and corticosteroid nasal sprays

sinusitis

10

What are the 2 types of sinusitis?

1. acute: 3 to 4 week resolution
2. chronic: surgical treatment

11

Type of sinusitis requiring surgery

chronic sinusitis

12

Which paranasal sinuses are affected most in sinusitis?

maxillary paranasal sinuses

13

Acute or chronic inflammation or infection of the pharynx

pharyngitis

14

What is the informal term for pharyngitis

sore throat

15

What are 3 types of pharyngitis?

1. acute
2. chronic
3. gonococcal

16

Type of pharyngitis that may be secondary to systemic viral infections such as chickenpox and measles

acute

17

Type of pharyngitis that occurs when an infection spreads to the pharynx and remains, such as syphilis and tuberculosis

chronic

18

Type of pharyngitis resulting from oral-genital sexual activity

gonococcal

19

How is streptococcal pharyngitis treated?

7-10 day course of antibiotics

20

What are the two conditions that must be ruled out before diagnosing pharyngitis?

1. epiglottitis
2. Ludwig's angina: cellulitis of the floor of the mouth

21

Head and neck cancer that arises in the area of the pharynx unique in that it is not linked to tobacco use

nasopharyngeal carcinoma

22

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma arise in the area of the pharynx that opens into the ____ anteriorly and the ___ inferiorly

nasal cavity, oropharynx

23

Cancer often linked to dietary intake or Epstein-Barr Virus infection

nasopharyngeal carcinoma

24

What are three main symptoms of nasopharyngeal carcinoma?

1. neck mass
2. epistaxis
3. serous otitis media

25

5 risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma:

1. salted fish in regular diet
2. high levels of nitrates
3. chinese herbs
4. infection with EBV
5. first degree relative with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

26

How are early stage and advanced stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated?

early stage: radiation therapy
advanced stage: chemoradiotherapy

27

Inflammation of the larynx including the vocal cords; main symptoms is hoarseness

laryngitis

28

List 5 causes of laryngitis.

1. infection: bacterial or viral
2 URI
3. reflux laryngitis: repeated attacks of acid reflux
4. excessive use of voice
5. benign or malignant lesion of the larynx

29

Treatment: voice rest, bed rest, fluid intake, lozenges and cough syrup

laryngitis

30

Chronic laryngitis is treated based on elimination of _____

the causative factor

31

Crooked nasal septum

deviated septum (DNS)

32

What are the two causes of DNS?

1. congenital anomaly
2. trauma

33

Treatment is unnecessary unless air passage is compromised; if so, treated surgically

DNS

34

Benign growth that form as a consequence of swollen mucous membranes protruding into the nasal cavity

nasal polyps

35

If polyps grow large enough, they can cause ____ and ____

breathing problems and anosmia (loss of smell)

36

Nasal polyps are caused by the _____ in the cells of the mucous membrane: also allergic rhinitis

overproduction of fluid

37

How are nasal polyps treated?

1. surgical removal
2. injection of a steroid directly into the polyps

38

Impairment or loss of the sense of smell

anosmia

39

The _____ form of anosmia can be caused by nasal polyps and allergic rhinitis

chronic form

40

List 3 other causes of anosmia.

1. phobia
2. damage of the olfactory nerves
3. intranasal swelling

41

Phobia of a certain smell

psychological anosmia

42

Can cause temporary anosmia

URTI

43

T or F. Damaged nerves can't be repaired in regards to anosmia

T

44

Hemorrhage from the nose

epistaxis

45

What is the informal term for epistaxis

nosebleed

46

List 3 causes of epistaxis.

1. cold/infections that cause crusting which damages the mucous membrane and ruptures vessels
2. direct trauma to the nose
3. systemic disorders

47

What are 2 common topical cauterization agents used to treat moderate epistaxis?

1. silver nitrate (AgNO3)
2. cocaine

48

What are 5 risk factors for epistaxis?

1. vitamin k deficiency
2. hypertension
3. aspirin ingestion
4. high altitude
5. anticoagulant therapy

49

Treated with local application of epinephrine followed by cauterization, nasal packing, surgical ligation of a bleeding artery if severe

epistaxis

50

____ lasting longer than 2 weeks is usually the inly symptom of a tumor of the larynx

dysphonia or difficulty speaking

51

What are the 2 types of benign tumors of the larynx?

1. papillomas
2. polyps

52

Type of larynx tumor that causes intermittent dysphonia

benign tumors

53

Type of larynx tumor that causes continuous, gradually worsening dysphonia

malignant tumors

54

How is laryngeal cancer treated once it has metastasized?

laryngectomy

55

Neoplasm of the larynx

laryngeal cancer

56

What is the most common site for head and neck tumors?

larynx

57

Laryngeal cancers are mostly _____ carcinomas

squamous cell carcinomas

58

T or F. Laryngeal cancers have peak incidence in the fifth and sixth decades of life

F. Sixth and seventh

59

What are the two major factors for laryngeal cancer, particularly when both occur?

1. smoking
2. alcohol abuse

60

How are laryngeal cancers treated?

surgery and/or radiation therapy

61

What are the 4 requirements for hearing?

1. vibratory or sound STIMULUS
2. RELAY of sound/vibration to the inner ear
3. STIMULATION of tiny hairs in cochlea
4. CONDUCTION of nerve impulses to the brain

62

What are the two main types of hearing loss?

1. conductive
2. sensorineural

63

Conductive hearing loss is related to impairment of the ____ or ____

eardrum or middle ear ossicles

64

Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by impairment of the ____ or _____

cochlea or the auditory nerve

65

Abnormal accumulation of ear wax in the canal of the outer ear, preventing sound waves from reaching the _____

impacted cerumen, tympanic membrane

66

What are 3 main causes for impacted cerumen?

1. dryness and scaling of skin
2. excessive hair in ear canal
3. abnormally narrow ear canal

67

Treatment: softened with oily drops or hydrogen peroxide and irrigated with water

impacted cerumen

68

Inflammation of the external ear canal

infective otitis externa

69

Infective otitis externa is caused by a buildup of ____ mixed with ___ which is a good place for bacteria or fungi

cerumen mixed with water

70

What are 2 conditions that can cause infective otitis externa?

1. psoriasis
2. seborrhea

71

T or F. Infective otitis externa tends to recur and can become chronic

T

72

Inflammation and resulting infection of the outer ear canal after water has been trapped during swimming

swimmer's ear

73

Swimmer's ear is caused by a buildup of ___ mixed with ___ in the ear canal

cerumen mixed with water, exactly like infective otitis externa

74

How are infective otitis externa and swimmer's ear different?

Swimmer's ear infection is caused by swimming; IOE is caused by an already existing infectious process

75

Inflammation of the normally air-filled middle ear with the accumulation of fluid behind the tympanic membrane; can occur unilaterally or bilaterally

otitis media (OM)

76

What are the two types of otitis media?

1. serous or nonsuppurative
2. suppurative

77

Type of OM with relatively clear and sterile fluid

serous or nonsuppurative

78

What are two types of serous otitis media?

1. acute
2. chronic

79

Acute serous otitis media is caused by a URI virus that has spread through the ____ into the ___

eustachian tube into the middle ear

80

Chronic serous otitis media develops from an acute attack, _____ of the adenoids, or ____ infection

hypertrophy of the adenoids or chronic sinus infection

81

Type of OM caused by bacteria

suppurative

82

Treated with decongestants to promote drainage and antibiotics for suppurative cases

OM

83

How is severe OM treated?

surgical evacuation of the fluid or myringotomy

84

T or F. Myringotomy tubes may need to be inserted after OM is treated to keep the middle ear filled with air and prevent fluid accumulation

T

85

Abnormal bone growth in the middle ear, primarily affecting the stapes

otosclerosis

86

T or F. Otosclerosis causes conductive hearing loss

T

87

What is the key symptom of otosclerosis?

tinnitus

88

In otosclerosis, the movement of the ____ is impaired, causing reduced conduction of sound waves

ossicles

89

What is the only cure for otosclerosis?

stapedectomy in which the bone is replaced with a prosthesis

90

If surgery is not an option for a patient with otosclerosis, how does he or she manage the condition?

hearing aids

91

Chronic disease of the inner ear affecting the labyrinth

Ménière's disease

92

What are the 4 core symptoms of Ménière's disease?

1. vertigo
2. tinnitus
3. progressive hearing loss
4. sensation of aural fullness

93

Ménière's disease involves the destruction of the ____ inside the cochlea

tiny hair cells

94

List some predisposing factors for Ménière's disease.

1. middle ear infection
2. head trauma
3. dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system
4. noise pollution
5. premenstrual edema

95

Treated by adopting a salt-free diet, restricted fluid intake, avoiding stressful situations

Ménière's disease

96

Ménière's disease can also be treated with surgical destruction of the affected labyrinth by ____

ultrasound

97

Vestibular system disorder stimulated by head movement

benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)

98

BPPV is caused by balance or equilibrium disorders where the ___ and ___ are not functioning properly

brainstem and cerebellum

99

What are the 3 drugs prescribed for BPPV?

1. anthistamines
2. anticholinergics
3. benzodizepines

100

Treated by repeatedly turning the head side to side

BPPV

101

What is the specific diagnostic test for BPPV?

caloric stimulation

102

Inflammation or infection of the labyrinth

labyrinthitis

103

BPPV vs Ménière's disease vs labyrinthitis?

Ménière's disease:
BPPV: vertigo stimulated by head movement; vestibular system
Labyrinthitis: constant vertigo not in relation to head movement

104

Labyrinthitis is caused by a virus or bacterial infection that has spread from the _____

middle ear

105

Type of labyrinthitis that can cause permanent hearing deficiency and/or balance problems

bacterial labyrinthitis

106

Any tear or injury to the eardrum that causes a breach in the integrity of the membrane

ruptured tympanic membrane

107

Ruptured tympanic membrane is the result of which 3 main factors?

1. pressure
2. force or insult from outside
3. increased pressure within the middle ear

Examples: nearby explosion, fractured skull, severe ear infection, sharp object, etc

108

Treated with patch applied to the eardrum or tympanoplasty

ruptured tympanic membrane

109

Pocket of skin cells located in the middle ear collects into a cyst-like mass and becomes infected

cholesteatoma

110

In cholesteatoma, the bone lining the ____, rods, and ossicles become damaged

middle ear cavity

111

How does cholesteatoma develop?

1. in infancy
2. chronic ear infection

112

In cholesteatoma, the ____ fails to open or becomes blocked (OM)

eustachian tube

113

A pocket in the eardrum is formed because the normally air-filled chamber develops a weak ____ causing the eardrum to become retracted

vacuum

114

The early stage of cholesteatoma is treated with thorough cleaning of the ____ and inflation of the ___

middle ear cavity, eustachian tube

115

THe advanced stage of cholesteatoma is treated with surgical reconstruction of the ____

middle ear

116

What are some complications that can arise when surgically reconstructing the middle ear?

deafness, vertigo or erosion of a facial nerve

117

Inflammation of the mastoid bone or mastoid process

mastoiditis

118

What are the 2 types of mastoiditis?

1. acute
2. chronic

119

Acute mastoiditis is the result of neglected, untreated, or poorly treated ______

acute otitis media

120

Chronic mastoiditis is associated with _____

advanced cholesteatoma

121

Chronic mastoiditis may be treated with what surgical procedure?

radical masoidectomy

122

Occupational hearing loss where sound waves reach the inner ear but are not perceived

sensorineural hearing loss

123

In sensorineural hearing loss, ____ are not transmitted to the brain

nerve impulses

124

List some causes of sensorineural hearing loss

1. nerve failure
2. damage to the cochlea or auditory nerve VIII
3. age
4. loud noises
5. side effects of medication
6. physical trauma with fracture of the temporal bone

125

How is sensorineural hearing loss treated?

By reducing the amount of damage to the cochlea by reducing noise levels