Outcome 3 Ophthalmology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Outcome 3 Ophthalmology Deck (125):
1

Refractive error, also called farsightedness, where distant objects are clear while near objects are blurry

hyperopia

2

In hyperopia, light entering the eye is focused ____ the retina rather than ____ the retina

light focused behind the retina rather than on the retina

3

In hyperopia, the eyeball is abnormally ___ measured from front to back

short

4

Hyperopia requires the eye's _____ to reposition the viewed object on the retina, therefore sharpening the image

internal lens

5

Refractive error also called nearsightedness where

near objects are clear while distant objects are blurry

6

In myopia, light entering the eye is focused ___ of the retina causing blurred vision

light is focused in front of the retina

7

In myopia, the eyeball is abnormally ___ as measured from front to back

long

8

In myopia, images viewed cannot be ____ by the eye's internal lens

sharpened

9

Refractive error which causes some images to appear clear while other images appear blurred

astigmatism

10

In astigmatism, ___ focusing of light rays enter the eey

irregular

11

In astigmatism, the cornea is ___ and not ___, causing light rays to be unevenly focused across the retina

egg shaped and not spherical

12

Refractive error in which the eye's internal lens can't focus on near objects due to loss of _____

elasticity

13

Presbyopia is related to ____; usually starts in people in their mid-40s

aging

14

Involuntary, repetitive and rhythmic movements of one or both eyes and associated with blurred or decreased vision

nystagmus

15

Type of nystagmus that always necessitates a complete neurologic evaluation

acquired nystagmus

16

What are the 2 types of nystagmus?

1. congenital
2. acquired

17

Type of nystagmus that manifests before 6 months to 1 year of age and is the most common type

congenital

18

Type of nystagmus that results when a disease process produces lesions in the brain or inner ear

acquired

19

List some causes for nystagmus

1. brain tumors
2. cerebrovascular lesions
3. abnormal development of the nervous system
4. alcohol/drug use

20

How is congenital nystagmus treated?

Kestenbaum procedure

21

The Kestenbaum procedure is used to treat congenital nystagmus where the eyes are surgically rotated towards the _____ of the eye

null point

22

How is acquire nystagmus treated?

treating underlying cause

23

Visual defect of misalignment where eyes fail to look in the same direction at the same time

strabismus

24

What are the 2 types of strabismus?

1. convergent strabismus or esotropia
2. divergent strabismus or exotropia

25

Type of strabismus better known as cross-eye where both eyes turn inward

convergent/esotropia

26

Type of strabismus better known as wall-eye where both eyes turn outward

divergent/exotropia

27

What is the main symptom of acquired strabismus?

diplopia or double vision

28

What disorder is associated with strabismus when present in childhood?

amblyopia or lazy eye

29

Strabismus is caused by weakness in the ____ stimulating the muscles that control eye position

nerves

30

Strabismus can also be caused by conditions elsewhere in the body in the ___, ___ or ___

brain, cranial nerves, muscles. Ex: HTN, temporal arteritis, muscular dystrophy, aneurysm, intracranial lesions

31

Strabismus should be treated immediately because early intervention is key. Examples of treatment are corrective glasses, surgery to restore the eye-muscle balance, and covering the ___ eye in order to force the patient to use the ___ eye

fixing eye, deviating eye

32

Acute, focal inflammatory infections of the sebaceous glands of the eyelids

hordeolum or stye

33

Which glands of the eyelids are affected by hordeolum

sebaceous glands

34

Hordeolum are associated with and secondary to _____

blepharitis

35

What is the only cause of hordeolum?

staphylococcal infection

36

Small, firm, non-mobile, painless subcutaneous nodule on the margin or body of the eyelid

chalazion

37

In chalazion there is a blockage of fluid originating from one of the ____ glands which lubricate the eyelid margin

meibomian

38

Any inflammation or infection of the cornea

keratitis

39

Keratitis is diagnosed by examining the cornea using a _____

slit lamp

40

Keratitis is an infection resulting from the ___ virus, especially likely in people w/ URI and facial cold sores

herpes simplex virus

41

What are other causes for keratitis

1. certain bacteria/fungi
2. contact lens wear
3. corneal trauma
4. corneal exposure to dry air or intense light

42

In keratitis, prompt treatment decreases the risk of ulceration which can cause what?

Ulceration can erode the cornea and form of scar tissue

43

Inflammation of the margins of the eyelids involving hair follicles/glands

blepharitis

44

Blepharitis is usually secondary to ___ of the eyelid's sebaceous glands

seborrhea

45

What is the main symptom of blepharitis?

redness, crusting eyelid, itching, burning

46

What are two types of blepharitis?

1. ulcerative
2. non-ulcerative

47

Type of blepharitis caused by staphylocococcal infection

ulcerative

48

Type of blepharitis caused by allergies or exposure to smoke, dust, chemicals

non-ulcerative

49

Chronic blepharitis may lead to ___ and ___

corneal and conjunctival inflammation

50

Lower eyelid margins turn inward

entropion

51

Entropion may cause ___ and ___ defects

conjunctivitis and ephithelial defects

52

Entropion causes the lashes to rub the ___ and ___

conjunctiva and cornea

53

How is entropion treated?

minor surgical procedure

54

Lower eyelid margins evert from the eyeball

ectropion

55

Ectropion exposes the ____ lining

conjunctival membrane lining

56

Type of ectropion that can be caused by scars on the eyelid or cheek that contract and pull the eye down

cicatricial ectropion

57

Ectropion left untreated can cause development of ___ and permanent damage to the ___

corneal ulcers, damage to the cornea

58

What causes both ectropion and entropion?

1. aging
2. loss of elasticity

59

Permanent drooping of the upper eyelid which partially or completely covers the eye

blepharoptosis

60

Blepharoptosis can be caused by weakness of the _____ nerve or of the muscle that raises the eyelid

third cranial nerve

61

Diseases like ___ and ___ can cause blepharoptosis

muscular dystrophy and myasthenia gravis

62

Blepharoptosis is treated with an operation to elevate the eyelid ___

position

63

If patient with blepharoptosis has myasthenia gravis, they are treated with ____

systemic medication

64

Inflammation of the conjunctiva

conjunctivitis

65

What is the layman's term for conjunctivitis

pink-eye

66

The mucous membrane covering the anterior portion of the eyeball and lines the eyelids

conjunctiva

67

What is present in infectious conjunctivitis?

watery or hyperpurulent discharge

68

What are 3 causes of pink eye?

1. viral or bacterial infection from contaminated fingers/towels
2. irritation from allergies or chemicals
3. sexual contact with someone with an STI

69

Infection of the cornea with painful loss of surface epithelium

corneal abrasion or ulcer

70

Abrasions and ulcerations stain with _____, which make them easily detectable

fluorescein

71

Characterized by an opaque area on the cornea that represents the infiltrate of immune cells

corneal ulcers

72

What causes corneal abrasions and ulcers?

1. foreign bodies trapped between cornea and eyelid
2. ocular trauma
3. poorly fitting contact lenses

73

How are corneal abrasions treated?

They heal spontaneously

74

How are corneal ulcers treated?

immediate intensive broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy

75

Inflammation of the episclera characterized by redness and irritation in ONE portion of the eye

episcleritis

76

T or F. Episcleritis is usually associated with other concomitant systemic diseases

F

77

Inflammation of the deeper sclera (white outermost covering of the eyeball) characterized by intense redness in one or more areas of the sclera

scleritis

78

What causes scleritis?

autoimmune disorders:
rheumatoid arthritis, Crohns, ulcerative colitis

79

What happens if scleritis is left untreated?

Perforation of the globe and loss of the eye can occur

80

How is scleritis treated?

scleroplasty

81

Opacified natural lens of the eye

cataract

82

What causes cataracts?

1. aging
2. prematurity
3. diabetes
4. high dose corticosteroid use

83

How are cataracts treated?

Depends on many factors but usually surgery when they begin to interfere with the lifestyle of the patient

84

What are the specific surgical procedures to treat cataracts?

1. phacoemulsification (most common: no sutures)
2. extracapsular surgery (removed in one piece)

85

In extracapsular surgery and phacoemulsification, the ____ is left in place to support an artificial lens

posterior capsule

86

Posterior membrane becomes cloudy after surgery; a laser can be used to make an opening in the center of the cloudy membrane. What is this procedure called?

YAG capsulotomy

87

Damage to the optic nerve in the presence of elevated ocular pressure

glaucoma

88

Glaucoma is one of the major causes of ____

blindness

89

What are the 2 types of glaucoma

1. Chronic open-angle
2. Acute angle-closure

90

Most common and most treatable form of glaucoma; obstruction occurs in the trabecular meshwork

chronic open angle

91

Type of glaucoma that can cause complete blindness; the trabecular meshwork is covered by the root of the iris or adhesions between
the iris and the cornea

acute angle-closure

92

What are the 3 risk factors for glaucoma?

1. age older than 60
2. nearsightedness
3. african-american descent

93

How is glaucoma detected?

1. intraocular pressure readings
2. optic nerve evaluations

94

List some causes of glaucoma.

1. ocular trauma
2. overuse of tropical steroids
3. family history
4. aging
5. diabetes mellitus
obesity

95

Medication is given to glaucoma patient to decrease ____ and increased ____

Decrease aqueous humor and increased uveoscleral outflow

96

What are the 5 procedures used to treat glaucoma?

1. argon laser trabeculopasty (ALT)
2. selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT)
3. laser iridotomy
4. trabeculectomy
5. beta blockers

97

Progressive deterioration or breakdown of the macula

macular degeneration

98

In macular degeneration, ___ vision may disappear altogether when advance

central

99

Macular degeneration does not affect ___ vision

peripheral

100

____ macular degeneration is the most common cause of blindness in white people in the US

age-related

101

What are 2 types of macular degeneration?

1. non-exudative (dry)
2. wet

102

Type of MD where there are atrophic changes in the macula and drusen deposits are present

non-exudative or dry macular degeneration

103

Type of MD where there is presence of abnormal blood vessels beneath the retina; can cause hemorrhage

wet

104

What causes macular degeneration?

degenerative changes in the pigment of the epithelium

105

T or F. There is no medical cure for MD

T

106

How is dry macular degeneration treated?

vitamin supplements especially vitamins C & E

107

How is wet macular degeneration treated?

1. traditional laser photocoagulation
2. photodynamic therapy
3. injection of antiangiogenic factors

108

Pathologic alterations of the retinal blood vessels and the pathologic proliferation of retinal vessels

diabetic retinopathy

109

What are the effects on retina associated with dr?

1.microaneurysm
2. hemorrhages
3. dilation of retinal veins
4. neovascularization (formation of abnormal new vessels)

110

Diabetic retinopathy occurs about __ to __ years after the onset of diabetes mellitus

8 to 10 years

111

What is the main cause of diabetic retinopathy?

Poor management of diabetes (however, all persons with diabetes are susceptible)

112

What are the 3 treatments for diabetic retinopathy?

1. laser coagulation
2. vitrectomy (vitreous hemorrhage/proliferative disease)
3. maintaining tight blood glucose control

113

Retinal detachment is the elevation or separation of the retina from the ___

choroid

114

What are the 2 main symptoms of retinal detachment?

1. light flashes
2. floaters

115

Retina is associated with which 2 diseases?

1. myopia
2. diabetic retinopathy

116

What causes retinal detachment?

fluid leaking under the retina through a retinal tear, retinal atrophy, ocular trauma

117

T or F> Irreversible blindness is likely if left untreated in patients with retinal detachment

T

118

How is retinal detachment treated?

1. photocoagulation and cryotherapy if no significant detachment has occurred
2. surgery

119

Inflammation of the uveal tract including the iris, ciliary body and choroid

uveitis

120

Which autoimmune disorders cause uveitis?

1. juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
2. ankylosing spondylitis

121

Which infections cause uveitis

syphillis, TB, toxoplasmosis, histoplasmosis, IBS

122

___ agents can reduce uveitis pain associated with ciliary inflammation

cycloplegic agents

123

Abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs

exophthalmos

124

What are 5 causes of exophthalmos?

1. ENLARGED extraocular muscles
2. RETROBULBAR mass, hemorrhage or inflammation
3. EDEMA of soft tissue that lines the bony orbit of the eye
4. all THYROID conditions

125

How is severe exophthalmos treated?

surgical decompression of the orbit