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Flashcards in Outcome 7 Pediatrics Deck (139):
1

Systemic disease with superficial cutaneous lesions

chickenpox

2

Chickenpox is also known as ____

varicella zoster

3

Chickenpox begin as red ___ that progress to ___ and then finally become ___ that form crusts

macules; papules; vesicles

4

T or F. Chickenpox can be seen all over the body and sometimes internally

T

5

3 chickenpox symptoms

1. fever
2. malaise
3. anorexia

6

Causative organism of chickenpox

varicella-zoster virus (VZV) or herpes virus 3

7

Chickenpox is transmitted by direct or indirect ____

droplet nuclei

8

4 complications of chickenpox

1. secondary bacterial infection
2. viral pneumonia
3. conjunctival ulcers
4. Reye's Syndrome

9

Chickenpox is treated palliatively to alleviate ____

pruritus

10

3 treatment options for chickenpox

1. cool bicarbonate soda baths
2. followed by a cornstarch dusting
3. calamine lotion

11

Acute communicable disease causing necrosis of the mucous membrane in the respiratory tract

diphtheria

12

Causative bacteria of diphtheria

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

13

* Corynebacterium diphtheriae enters the ___ and is transmitted by ___ droplets

nasopharynx; airbone respiratory droplets

14

As the bacteria invade the nasopharynx, they multiply and produce a ___ that travels in the blood throughout the body

exotoxin

15

Diphtheria cause grayish patches of thick mucuous membrane to appear along the respiratory tract known as ___

pseudomembrane

16

Pseudomembrane can interfere with the ___, impairing swallowing and speech

airway

17

Main symptom of diphtheria is ___ adhering to the throat

membrane

18

Diphtheria ___ is given as soon as possible

antitoxin

19

In diphtheria, ___ and ___ is indicated to kill the organism

penicillin and erythromycin

20

Acute communicable viral disease causing inflammation and swelling of one or both parotid glands

mumps

21

Mumps are also called ___

epidemic parotitis

22

In mumps, airborne virus is spread by ___ from the ___

droplet nuclei; respiratory tract

23

3 secondary complications of mumps

1. orchitis (may lead to sterility)
2. meningitis
3. encephalitis

24

Males with mumps may have ___ tenderness and swelling and may need ___ supprot

testicular; scrotal

25

Over the counter drug to treat mumps

acetaminophen

26

Highly contagious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract

pertussis

27

Pertussis is also known as ___

whooping cough

28

* 3 stages of pertussis

1. catarrhal
2. paroxysmal
3. convalescent

29

Pertussis stage: highly contagious stage; seems like a cold

catarrhal

30

Pertussis stage: cough becomes violent

paroxysmal

31

In the paroxysmal stage of pertussis, the cough ends in a high pitched ____ followed by a vomiting of thick ____

inspiratory whoop; mucus

32

Pertussis stage: cough gradually diminishes

convalescent period

33

This pertussis bacillus reproduces in the respiratory tract

Bordetella pertussis

34

Bordetella pertussis bacteria releases toxin that leads to ___ of the mucosa with a thick ___

necrosis; exudate

35

Pertussis is transmitted by ___ via direct or interrect contact with ___ secretions of the patient

droplet nuclei; nasopharyngeal

36

Antibiotic to treat pertussis

erythromycin

37

3 complications of severe pertussis

1. bronchopneumonia
2. convulsions
3. hemorrhages

38

Acute highly contagious viral disease in children who have not been vaccinated

measles

39

Measles is also known as ___

rubella

40

The causative agent of measles is the measles virus, specifically a ____ of the genus ____

paramyxovirus; Morbillivirus

41

Measles is caused by ___ spread by ___ contact with secretions from nose or throat

airbone; direct

42

4 possible complications of measles

1. pneumonia
2. otitis media
3. conjunctivitis
4. encephalitis

43

Uncomplicated measles lasts __ to __ days

7-10

44

T or F. If secondary infection occurs with measles, antibiotics are used to treat it

T

45

Highly contagious viral disease that resembles measles clinically

rubella

46

Rubella is different from measles in that it has a ___ course and ___ complications

shorter course; fewer complications

47

Rubella is also known as ____ or ____

German measles; three day measles

48

In measles, the child has a ___-colored slightly elevated rash appearing first on the face and head and progresses downward on the body

rose-

49

3 complications of rubella

1. transient arthritis
2. myocarditis
3. hemorrhagic manifestations

50

Rubella is of great danger to ___ children of ___ women who have the disease

unborn; pregnant

51

The rubella virus is spread by ___ contact with nasal/oral secretions and can be prevented by ____

direct; immunizations

52

Acute potentially deadly, systemic infection characterized by painful involuntary contraction of skeletal muscles

tetanus

53

Two main symptoms of tetanus

1. lockjaw
2. fever > 101 degrees Fahrenheit

54

* Tetanus is caused by ___ that enters the skin by a puncture

Bacillus clostridium tetani

55

Bacillus clostridium tetani is found in ____ and ____

contaminated soil; animal excreta

56

Medical management of tetanus is chiefly supported with ___ and ___ to relieve spasms and seizures

sedatives; muscle relaxants

57

Unimmunized patients can be given ____ (TIG) within 72 hours of injury for temporary immunity

tetanus immune globulin (TIG)

58

There is a tetanus booster every __ years

5

59

The mortality rate for tetanus is __%

35%

60

Sudden and unpredicted death of an infant

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

61

SIDS occurs in infants under the age of __ year

1

62

Causative theories/risk factors for SIDS include young mothers, exposure to ___, sleeping in the ___, prematurity and sleep apnea

smoking; prone position

63

T or F. SIDS is not predictable or preventable

T

64

Acute severe inflammation and obstruction of the respiratory tract

croup

65

Croup is usually preceded by an ____

upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)

66

Symptoms of croup include hoarseness, fever, harsh high pitched cough, ___ during inspiration, ___ with grunting noise and wheezing

stridor; dyspnea

67

Croup is a viral disease involving the ___, ___ and ___

larynx; trachea; bronchi

68

Clinical manifestion of croup is caused by ___ and ___ of vocal cords, creating varying degrees of obstruction

edema; spasm

69

Croup is treated with ___ agents, cool ___ of air and ___ therapy

antipyretic; humidification; bacterial antibiotic

70

Severe cases of croup can cause hospitalization for ___ and ___ therapy

endotracheal intubation; oxygen therapy

71

In croup, x-ray of the airway may show a characteristic ____ sign

steeple

72

Inflammation of the epiglottis in children 3-7 years old

epiglottitis

73

Main symptoms of epiglottitis include respiratory distress caused by ____ obstruction, rapid ___ and drooling

laryngeal; dyspnea

74

Common cause of epiglottitis is ____ bacteria

haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) bacteria

75

Epiglottitis caused by heat damage from ingesting very hot liquids or food

thermal epiglottitis

76

Airway is established in epiglottitis by ___ or ____

tracheostomy; endotracheal intubation

77

Antibiotics given parenterally in epiglottitis

ampicillin

78

Inflammation of the tonsils; sudden onsent

acute tonsillitis

79

Type of streptococci causing tonsillitis

Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci

80

Chronic tonsillitis may require this surgery

tonsillectomy

81

Adenoid hyperplasia is an abnormal enlargement of the ____ tissue located above the ____ of the mouth causing a partial breathing blockage

lymphoid; soft palate

82

Children most at risk for adenoid hyperplasia have these two characteristics

1. mouth breathing
2. snoring

83

Conditions that may necessitate an adenoidectomy include obstruction, recurrent ___, ___ hearing loss and obstructive ___

otitis media; conductive hearing loss; obstructive sleep apnea

84

Chronic irreversible obstructive disease caused by increased reactivity of the tracheobronchial tree to various stimuli

asthma

85

2 major processes of asthma

1. constriction of bronchioles
2. inflammation of airway

86

T or F. Heredity is a strong factor associated with astma

T

87

Asthma is the result of hypersensitive ____ tubes

bronchial tubes

88

3 triggers for asthma

1. allergic or extrinsic
2. non-allergic or intrinsic
3. pollutants

89

Treated with cromolyn sodium, albuterol, theophylline or aerosol corticosteroids

asthma

90

Inflammation of the bronchioles; common disease in infancy

bronchiolitis

91

Bronchiolitis is usually caused by viruses like the common parainfluenza and adenovirus, but mostly the ___ virus

respiratory syncytial virus

92

Rule out ___ before diagnosing bronchiolitis

pneumonia

93

Treated with albuterol, racemic, epinephrine, or hypertonic saline via nebulizer

bronchiolitis

94

Worst cases of bronchiolitis need to be intubated and mechanically ____ until infection goes away

ventilated

95

Intermittent distress in the newborn or during early infancy of unclear etiology

infantile colic

96

Theories for causes of infantile colic include improper ___ techniques, over-eating, and ____ excessive air

feeding techniques; swallowing

97

Causative factor to infantile colic is sensitivity to ____

cow's milk

98

Probiotics or simethicone can provide relief

infantile colic

99

Infants usually outgrow infantile colic at about __ months

3

100

Roundworms, pinworms, hookworms and tapeworms that are in the GI tract

Helminth (worm) infestation

101

Most common cause of helminth infestation; transmitted directly or indirectly from human to human

E. vermicularis or pinworm

102

Treatment given to patients and entire family

complete course of anthelmintic agents

103

Treatment options for helminth infestation include frequent showering, frequen handwashing, and laundering clothing/linens in hot water with ____

bleach

104

Abnormal reduction in the concentration of RBC or in the hemoglobin content of circulating blood cells

anemia

105

The most common cause of anemia in children

iron deficiency

106

Other causes of anemia include chronic blood loss, decreased ___ formation, ___ deficiency disorder, hemolytic disease, inhibition or loss of ___, sickle cell disease

decreased blood formation, nutritional deficiency disorder, loss of bone marrow

107

Type of anemia treated with iron-rich foods and oral preparations of ferrous sulfate

iron deficiency anemia

108

When blood loss is the cause of the anemia, blood volume is restored by ____

transfusion

109

Replacement therapy is used for anemia with ____

deficiency states

110

___ are treated when anemia is caused by excessive blood cell destruction

specific hemolytic blood disorders

111

Cancer of blood forming tissues; most common childhood malignancy

leukemia

112

* 2 types of leukmia

1. acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL)
2. acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

113

What percentage of leukemia cases is ALL?

80%

114

Leukemia is caused by an abnormal increase in the number of ____ or ____

immature WBC; undifferentiated blastocytes

115

Predisposing factors for leukemia include congenital disorders like ___ and ___

Down Syndrome; radiation exposure

116

Peak age for leukemia is __ to __ years old

2-6

117

____ eradicated leukemic cells

systemic chemotherapy

118

Chemotherapy is administered _____ to treat leukemia or as prophylaxis against ____ invasion

intrathecally; central nervous system invasion

119

Possible treatment with poor prognosis or relapsed ALL or children with AML

bone marrow transplant

120

___ carries a poorer prognosis than ___ when treated wsolely with chemotherapy

AML; ALL

121

Incompatibility of fetal and maternal blood resulting in excessive rates of RBC destruction

erythroblastosis fetalis

122

Erythroblastosis fetalis is also called ___

hemolytic disease of the newborn

123

Cause of erythroblastosis fetalis

Rh factor incompatibility

124

Rh is the ___ in RBC of the Rh ___ individual

antigen; positive

125

Mother has become sensitized to the Rh factor through ____

prior pregnancy

126

Treatment for erythroblastosis fetalis when fetus shows signs of distress

intrauterine transfusions

127

When necessary, delivery of infant with erythroblastosis fetalis is planned __ to __ weeks before term

2 to 4 weeks

128

Environmentally caused blood toxicity resulting from ingestion or inspiration of lead dust or particles

lead poisoning

129

T or F. Any lead in the blood is abnormal

T

130

Treatment of lead poisoning include eliminating source, ___ removal of lead in blood, ___ to help control nausea and vomiting

chelating; antiemetic

131

Combination of brain disease and fatty invasion of the inner organs especially the liver

Reye's syndrome

132

Reye's syndrome typically follows infection with ___ or ___ viruses or chickenpox

influenza A or B viruses

133

Reye's syndrome is also linked to the use of ___ during infections

aspirin

134

Early recognition and treatment of Reye's syndrome cuts mortality rate from __% to __%

90% to 20%

135

Successful management of Reye's syndrome include controlling cerebral ____, monitoring blood ____, managing ___, and providing mechanical ____ if needed

edema; chemistries; seizures; ventilation

136

Describes the birth defects and other associated problems in infants born to alcoholic mothers who consume alcohol during the gestational period

fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

137

FAS occurs when alcohol enters the ____ as a result of chronic, excessive use of alcohol during gestation

fetal blood

138

Much of treatment of FAS is supportive because ____ cannot be reversed

neurologic damage

139

____ needs of mother and infant must be addressed in FAS

psychological