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Flashcards in Outcome 12 GI System Deck (224):
1

treatment options for dental caries

fillings, root canals, tooth extraction

2

most common cause of gingivitis

plaque

3

cause of periodontitis

unchecked gingivitis

4

4 causes of malocclusion

1. inheritance
2. early loss of primary teeth
3. thumb or finger sucking
4. airway problems

5

4 causes of TMJ syndrome

1. bruxism (grinding)
2. malocclusion
3. poorly fitting dentures
4. arthritis

6

3 last resort surgical treatments options for TMJ syndrome

1. TMJ arthroscopy
2. joint restructuring
3. joint replacement

7

definitive treatment for tooth abscess

root canal following antibiotic therapy

8

2 types of mouth ulcers

1. aphthous
2. traumatic

9

mouth ulcers; source not established

aphthous ulcers

10

mouth ulcers; usually caused by mechanical trauma, viral and bacterial infection, stress, illness

traumatic ulcers

11

virus typically the cause of cold sores

herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) though there can be cross- contamination from HSV-2

12

organism that causes thrush

candida: most commonly Candida albicans

13

necrotizing periodontal disease most often seen today in association with this disease

HIV/AIDS: anaerobic opportunistic bacteria

14

another term for necrotizing periodontal disease

Vincent's angina

15

oral leukoplakia causes ____

hyperkeratosis

16

what normally causes oral leukoplakia

chronic irritation

17

mild cases of GERD is described as ____

heartburn

18

4 treatment options for GERD

1. elevate the head of the bed
2. light evening meal 4 hours before bedtime
3. antacids
4. drugs

19

surgical treatment for GERD; used conservatively

anti-reflux surgery

20

patients have this underlying condition in esophageal varices

portal hypertension

21

2/3 of patients with esophageal varices have this condition

cirrhosis of the liver

22

2 treatment options for esophageal varices

1. sclerotherapy and/or ligation if bleeding
2. emergency portal decompression

23

most common cause of esophagitis

reflux

24

replacement of normal stratified squamous epithelium of the distal esophagus with abnormal columnar epithelium

Barrett's esophagus

25

__% patients with chronic GERD develop Barrett's esophagus and have a ___x higher risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and proximal stomach

15%; 30x

26

most common type of peptic ulcer

duodenal ulcers

27

most common cause of peptic ulcers

helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria

28

second most common cause of peptic ulcers

NSAID use

29

surgical treatment for peptic ulcers is required when in cases of ____ and ____

perforation and hemorrhage

30

which form of gastritis is more common

acute form

31

main cause of gastritis

H. pylori

32

significant diagnostic indicator of acute appendicitis

maximal tenderness at McBurney's point

33

in appendicitis, what can rebound tenderness on examination indicate

peritoneal irritation

34

defect in the diaphragm permitting a segment of the stomach to slide into the thoracic cavity

hiatal hernia

35

2 causes of hiatal hernia

1. congenital defect in the diaphragm
2. weakness in the diaphragm due to obesity, old age, trauma, or intraabdominal pressure

36

6 types of hernia

1. hiatal
2. abdominal
3. femoral
4. umbilical
5. inguinal
6. incisional

37

what can result from a trapped or strangulated (incarcerated) hernia

gangrene

38

types of hernias are based on ____

location

39

surgical treatment option for hernias in an otherwise healthy child or adult

herniorrhaphy

40

crohn's disease can cause these 4 things on the intestines

1. deep ulcerations
2. bowel obstruction
3. adhesions
4. abscesses

41

x-rays can reveal ____ as a diagnostic indicator for crohns

skip lesions

42

chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the mucosa and submucosa of the rectum and colon

ulcerative colitis

43

treatment for severe cases of ulcerative colitis

1. proctocolectomy with either ileostomy or ileoanal anastamosis

44

4 causes of gastroenteritis

1. traveler's diarrhea
2. intestinal influenza
3. food or chemical poisoning
4. allergic reactions to food and drug

45

ingestion of disease-causing bacteria or parasites from contaminated food or water

traveler's diarrhea

46

causes of intestinal obstruction

mechanical obstructions

47

t or f. mechanical intestinal obstructions may require surgical removal of the lesion or blockage

t

48

another term for diverticulosis

diverticular disease

49

term for the defects in the muscular wall of the large bowel that result from diverticulosis

outpouches

50

part of the large intestine where diverticulosis is most common

sigmoid colon

51

cause of diverticulosis

diet inadequate in roughage

52

cause of diverticulitis

trapped fecal matter in the out pouches associated with diverticular disease

53

when is surgical removal of the diseased portion performed for diverticulitis

Perforation and/or hemorrhage

54

pseudomembraneous enterocolitis causative bacteria:

Clostridium difficile: C diff.

55

cause of pseudomembranous enterocolitis

broad-spectrum antibiotics

56

2 other treatments for pseudomembraneous enterocolitis

1. discontinue the antibiotic
2. isolation

57

virulent strain has been associated with hospital outbreaks of pseudomembraneous enterocilitis

BI/NAPI

58

short bowel syndrome occurs when a length of intact or functioning bowel is altered by ___ or ___

disease or surgery

59

4 main symptoms of IBS

1. chronic abdominal pain
2. discomfort
3. bloating
4. erratic dysfunction of bowel habits

60

is there a cure for IBS?

no

61

Is peritonitis acute or chronic?

can be both

62

Is peritonitis local or generalized?

can be both

63

cause of primary peritonitis

Blood-borne organisms originating in the GI or genital tract

64

cause of secondary peritonitis

perforation in the GI tract or intra-abdominal organs

65

Internal hemorrhoids are with the ____ above the ___

rectum; junction of the skin and rectal mucosa

66

external hemorrhoids are those lower in the ____ covered by skin

anal area

67

5 surgical treatment for hemorrhoids

1. band ligations
2. cryosurgery
3. photocoagulation
4. electrocoagulation
5. hemorrhoidectomy

68

replacement of normal liver cells with hard, fibrous scar tissue

hobnail liver

69

most common cause of liver cirrhosis

chronic alcoholism

70

HAV is transmitted by ____ route from contaminated food, water and stools

fecal-oral route

71

recommended before travel into areas where hep A is prevalent

vaccination

72

HBV is considered chronic when the Hep B antigen is present in the blood for more than ___ months

6

73

Primary method if transmission for HBV is through the _____ and ____ routes (blood and body fluid)

percutaneous and perimucosal routes

74

HCV is transmitted through ___ and ____

blood; body fluids

75

Patients can recover completely but most develop ___ hep C

chronic

76

4 contributing factors to the formation of cholelithiasis

1. aging
2. high-calorie and high-cholesterol diet
3. being female
4. ocp use

77

3 treatment options for recurring cholelithiasis pain

1. ERCP
2. ESWL
3. cholecystectomy

78

usual cause of cholecystitis is obstruction of the biliary duct caused by ___

gallstones

79

most common cause of acute pancreatitis

gallstones

80

this can result in severe cases of pancreatitis

multi-organ failure

81

Kwashiorkor malnutrition is a deficiency of ___ in the presence of adequate ___

protein; energy

82

In industrialized societies, Kwashiorkor is usually caused by these 3 factors

1. trauma
2. burns
3. illness

83

Marasmus malnutrition is a combined ___ and ___ deficiency

protein and energy

84

In industrialized societies, Marasmus is usually caused by ____

chronic diseases like COPD, CHF, AIDS

85

Main cause of malabsorption syndrome

defective mucosal cells in the small intestine

86

3 characteristics of celiac disease

1. malabsorption
2. gluten intolerance
3. damage to the lining of the intestine

87

Treatment for food poisoning

symptom management

88

2 precipitating factors in anorexia

1. family factors
2. social factors

89

Condition that can arise in a bulimic patient that can cause sudden death

hypokalemia

90

Motion sickness is caused by a disturbance in the ____

sense of balance

91

infection resulting in erosion of the tooth surface

dental caries

92

4 step process behind dental caries

cavity causing bacteria > acid plaque > demineralization > cavity

93

dental caries is also caused by ____ from GERD or bulimia burging

stomach acid

94

Inflammation and swelling of the gums

gingivitis

95

2 demographics susceptible to gingivitis

1. pregnant women
2. diabetics

96

untreated gingivitis leads to the destruction of the gums and bone disease, called ____

periodontitis

97

destructive gum and bone disease around one or more of the teeth

periodontitis

98

another term for periodontitis

periodontal disease

99

3 treatment options for periodontitis

1. SRP scaling
2. root planing
3. curettage

100

this periodontal surgery may be required if pockets are deep and nonresponsive

respective periodontal surgery

101

specific angles of malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth

malocclusion

102

4 treatment options for malocclusion

1. braces
2. tooth extraction
3. surgical removal of portions of jaw
4. combined crowns or bridges

103

symptom complex related to inflammation, disease or dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint

temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ)

104

TMJ is also treated with ____ injections of hydrocortisone

intraarticular

105

Pus-filled sac that develops in the tissue surrounding the base of the root

tooth abscess

106

3 causes of tooth abscess

1. dead pulp w/ invading bacteria
2. exposure of nerve due to decayed tooth
3. exposure of nerve due to tooth structure loss

107

a surgical procedure to treat tooth abscess if a lesion is long standing, large or doesn't heal after a period of time

apicectomy

108

lesion on the mucous membrane, exposing the underlying sensitive tissue

mouth ulcers

109

informal term for mouth ulcers

canker sores

110

mouth ulcers are usually caused by ____ trauma

mechanical trauma

111

mouth ulcers may be the first sign of these 3 conditions

1. tumor in mouth
2. anemia
3. leukemia

112

contagious, recurrent viral infection affecting skin and mucous membranes

herpes simplex

113

informal term for herpes simplex

cold sores

114

rubbing eyes after touching ulcer could form ___, which can produce severe illness

herpetic corneal ulcers

115

viral cause of herpes simplex

HSV-1 (herpes simplex type 1)

116

herpes simplex tend to recur because the virus can be ___

dormant

117

burning, tingling sensation with herpes simplex that occurs in the soon to be affected area

prodome

118

t or f. there is no known cure for herpes simplex

t

119

Candidiasis of the oral mucosa, involving the mouth, tongue, palate, and gums

thrush

120

t or f. thrush rarely becomes systemic or infectious

t

121

fungus that causes the most cases of thrush

Candida albicans

122

common infection affecting the gums and the anchoring structure of the teeth

necrotizing periodontal disease

123

another term for necrotizing periodontal disease

Vincent's angina

124

necrotizing periodontal disease is formerly called ____ or ___

1. acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
2. trench mouth

125

necrotizing periodontal disease is caused by _____ bacteria

anaerobic opportunistic bacteria

126

hyperkeratosis or epidermal thickening of the buccal mucosa, palate, or lower lip

oral leukoplakia

127

oral leukoplakia is considered ____ until proven otherwise

precancerous

128

Clinical manifestations of regurgitation of stomach and duodenal contents into the esophagus

GERD

129

GERD is caused by relaxation of the ____ or an increase in ____

lower esophageal sphincter (LES); intra-abdominal pressure

130

Dilated submucosal veins that develop in patients with underlying portal HTN; may result in serious upper GI bleeding

esophageal varices

131

with rupture in esophageal varices, pt experiences these 3 conditions

1. hematemesis
2. melena
3. hypovolemic shock

132

esophageal varices are caused by increased pressure within the veins when the ____ to the liver is impeded

venous return

133

common complication of esophageal varices

liver cirrhosis

134

inflammation and tissue injury of the esophagus

esophagitis

135

severe inflammation of the esophagus resulting from ingestion of a caustic chemical

corrosive esophagitis

136

esophagitis can be a GI manifestation of an ____ infection

HIV

137

treatment for esophageal perforation in esophageal varices

emergency endoscopic or surgical repair

138

treatment for esophageal stricture in esophageal varices

dilation procedure

139

protective mucous membrane of the stomach or upper intestinal tract breaks down, making the lining prone to ulceration

gastric and duodenal peptic ulcers

140

internal surface lesions from gastric and duodenal peptic ulcers can be these 3 things

1. acute or chronic
2. clustered or singular
3. shallow or deep

141

inflammation of the lining of the stomach

gastritis

142

bacterial cause of acute gastritis

H. pylori

143

disease that causes of chronic gastritis

peptic ulcer disease

144

chronic gastritis can also be caused by a history of chronic disease like ____

pernicious anemia

145

inflammation of the appendix

acute appendicitis

146

if appendicitis is untreated, necrosis and rupture can result in _____ which is life-threatening

peritonitis

147

defect in the diaphragm permitting a segment of the stomach to slide into the thoracic cavity

hiatal hernia

148

in hiatal hernia, the ____ malfunctions, allowing the contents of the stomach to regurgitate into the esophagus

lower esophageal sphincter muscle (LES)

149

hiatal hernia can cause this condition

GERD

150

to treat hiatal hernia, minimize activities that increase ____ such as straining or coughing

intra-abdominal pressure

151

an organ protrudes through an abnormal opening in the abdominal wall

abdominal hernia

152

abnormal hernia occurs when an _____ develops in a weak area

abnormal opening

153

device worn for uncomplicated hernias

truss

154

chronic, relapsing inflammatory disorder of the GI tract

Crohn's disease

155

Chron's disease is also called _____

regional enteritis

156

goals of treating Crohn's involve treating the _____ and maintain remission

acute disease flareups

157

chronic inflammatory bowel disease affecting the mucosa and submucosa of the rectum/colon

ulcerative colitis

158

fulminant ulcerative colitis may cause severe complications including ____

perforation

159

drug treatment for severe ulcerative colitis

anti-TNF (antibodies to tumor necrosis factor)

160

acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines

gastroenteritis

161

in gastroenteritis, ___ and ___ fail to rid the body of toxins or large numbers of disease-causing bacteria and viruses

normal bacteria flora and acid secretions

162

avoid using ____ to treat traveler's diarrhea as they may delay body's elimination of organisms

anti-diarrheal agents

163

mechanical or functional blockage of the intestines; occurs when contents of intestine can't move forward because of a blockage of the bowel

intestinal obstruction

164

treatment of mechanical intestinal obstruction may required these 3 procedures

1. surgical removal of lesion/blockage
2. resection of diseased bowel
3. 2nd surgery to take down ostomy and rejoin the bowel

165

treatment of nonmechanical or functional intestinal obstruction doesn't usually involve surgery; ____ used in cases of fecal impaction

1. manual disimpaction
2. enemas

166

progressive condition characterized by defects in the muscular wall of the large bowel

diverticulosis or diverticular disease

167

in diverticulosis, these penetrate weak points in the muscular layer of large intestine

diverticula

168

treatment of diverticulosis includes diet with adequate fluids and ___ to produce soft, formed stool

roughage

169

infection of one or more diverticula; not nearly as common as diverticulosis

diverticulitis

170

diverticulitis when one or more diverticula become ____

inflamed

171

contributing factors to diverticulitis include lack of ____, inadequate fluid intake, constipation are contributing factors

dietary bulk

172

acute inflammation with a plaque like adhesion of necrotic debris and mucus adhered to the damaged superficial mucosa of the small and large intestines

pseudomembranous enterocolitis

173

small bowel fails to absorb nutrients because of inadequate absorptive surface; interferes with digestion and absorption of needed nutrients

short-bowel syndrome

174

functional bowel disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and erratic dysfunction of bowel habits

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

175

IBS incidence increases after ___, which suggests immune or neuro-immune contribution

GI infection

176

inflammation of the peritoneum; can be acute or chronic and local or generalized

peritonitis

177

varicose dilations of a vein in the anal canal or the anorectal area

hemorrhoids

178

in hemorrhoids, veins in the rectal and anal area become ____ as a result of blockage

varicose, swollen, tender

179

irreversible chronic degenerative disease; slow deterioration of liver resulting in replacement of normal liver cells with hard, fibrous scar tissue

cirrhosis of the liver

180

2 predisposing conditions to liver cirrhosis

1. wilson's disease
2. hemochromatosis

181

highly contagious and causes mild acute liver infection; only hep to cause spiking fevers

hep A (HAV)

182

HAV is also called ____ hepatitis

infectious hepatiits

183

2 usual results of HAV

1. liver function fully recovered
2. lifelong immunity to HAV

184

in HAV, intramuscular administration of ____ is recommended within 2 weeks of exposure

globulin

185

more insidious than HAV; aminotransferase levels are higher

hep B (HVB)

186

many HBV infections are due to ___ or ___

sexual contact; blood exchange from contaminated needles

187

most at risk for HBV due to accidental inoculation

healthcare providers

188

drug given to exposed, nonimmune HBV patient

hep B immune globulin (HBIG)

189

widesperead epidemic; most common blood-borne infection

hep C (HCV)

190

exposure to hep C is traced to these 4 factors

1. blood transfusions

191

t or f. hep C is cureable

f. incureable

192

common condition in which there is an abnormal presence of calculi or gallstones that form in the bile

cholelithiasis or gallstones

193

cholelithiasis form due to insoluble ___ and ____

cholesterol; bile salts

194

3 risk factors for cholelithiasis

1. ileal disease
2. alcoholic cirrhosis
3. biliary tract infections

195

___ gallstones are left alone

asymptomatic

196

acute or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder, associated with obstruction of cystic duct

cholecystitis

197

surgical treatment for cholecystitis

cholecystectomy

198

acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas with variable involvement of adjacent and remote organs

acute and chronic pancreatitis

199

acute pancreatitis occurs when there is an escape of activated pancreatic enzymes from _____ into surrounding tissues

acinar cells

200

disorder of malnutrition caused by primary deprivation of protein-energy (poverty/self-imposed starvation) or secondary to deficiency diseases (cancer/diabetes)

malnutrition

201

2 distinct syndromes in protein-energy malnutrition

1. kwashiorkor
2. marasmus

202

deficiency of protein in the presence of adequate energy

kwashiorkor

203

extreme malnutrition and emaciation caused by combined protein and energy deficiency

marasmus

204

group of disorders in which intestinal absorption of dietary nutrients is impaired; pts have impaired digestion and unable to absorb fat or other dietary componenents

malabsorption syndrome

205

main cause of malabsorption syndrome is ____ cells in the small intestine

defective mucosal cells

206

malabsorption is treated by targeting underlying cause and controlled with a high protein, high calorie diet with these vitamins

vitamins A, D, E and K

207

toxic or immunologic reaction to a component of gluten; has multisystem effects that can produce serious health problems

celiac disease

208

pts with celiac disease are more prone to develop these 2 conditions later in life

1. abdominal lymphoma
2. cancer

209

2 other names for celiac disease

1. gluten enteropathy
2. celiac sprue

210

resistant form of celiac diseases is called ____

refractory sprue

211

treatment for celiac disease involves a lifelong ____ diet to allow the bowel to heal and reverse malabsorption

gluten-free

212

family of drugs to treat refractory sprue

corticosteroid drugs

213

illness resulting from eating food containing bacterial toxins and viral, chemical or toxic substances

food poisoning

214

t or f. in severe cases, patient becomes disabled and becomes life-threatening

t

215

true food poisoning includes poisoning from mushrooms, shellfish, and food contaminated with ____ substances

poisonous and toxic

216

other causes of food poisoning include eating food that has undergone these 2 processes

1. putrefaction
2. decomposition

217

eating disorder linked to a psychological disturbance in which hunger is denied by self-imposed starvation resulting from distorted body image; compulsion to be thin

anorexia nervosa

218

behavioral disorder characterized by recurring episodes of binge eating followed by self-induced vomiting or purging

bulimia

219

personality traits that are characteristic in patients with bulimia

perfectionist trait

220

anorexia is associated with these 2 mental illnesses

1. depression
2. anxiety

221

bulimia is associated with these 2 mental illnesses

1. depression
2. compulsion

222

loss of equilibrium experienced during motion; nausea and vomiting when riding transportation

motion sickness

223

in motion sickness, fluid in the ____ of the ears become dislocated because of motion

semicircular canals

224

treatment for motion sickness involves sitting in a vehicle in position that has the least amount of ___ and where the patient can see the ____

motion; horizon