Outcome 13 Nephrology and Genitourinary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Outcome 13 Nephrology and Genitourinary Deck (90):
1

t or f. acute glomerulonephritis is both a primary or secondary disorder

t

2

most common form of acute glomerulonephritis

secondary

3

acute glomerulonephritis usually follows this type of infection

group B streptococcal infection

4

result of chronic glomerulonephritis is the progressive destruction of the glomeruli and eventually ____

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)

5

crystals of urea on the skin that result from the body trying to excrete urea through the sweat glands

uremic frost

6

arteriovenous fistula access

*

7

types of peritoneal dialysis

*

8

uses gravity to aid dialysate solution in filtering process, thereby draining waste into a bag worn around waist

continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)

9

uses a machine that continuously cycles the dialysate and extracts the waste

continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD)

10

typically performed at night while patient sleeps

ccpd

11

75% of kidney transplants are performed on patients with these 3 things

1. diabetic renal failure
2. hypertensive renal disease
3. glomerulonephritis

12

part of glomerulus affected by nephrotic syndrome

basement membrane

13

nephrotic syndrome can follow these 4 hings

1. glomerulonephritis
2. exposure to certain toxins or drugs
3. pregnancy
4. kidney transplant

14

3 main causes of acute renal failure

1. diminished blood flow to the kidney
2. intrarenal damage or disease
3. mechanical obstruction of urine flow

15

CRF results from the gradual and progressive loss of this kidney component

nephrons

16

CRF is reversible

f

17

2 dietary substances that should be restricted in patients with CRF

1. protein
2. sodium

18

areas of kidney inflamed in pyelonephritis

renal pelvis and connective tissues

19

normal cause of pyelonephritis

infection ascending from the lower urinary tract

20

other 2 common causes of pyelonephritis

1. pregnancy
2. renal calculi

21

part of the kidney dilated in hydronephrosis

renal pelvis

22

cause of hydronephrosis: obstruction of urine flow due to these 4 factors

1. renal calculi
2. tumors
3. inflammation
4. pregnancy

23

excessive amounts of 2 substances in the blood leading to the formation of renal calculi

1. calcium
2. uric acid

24

large stone formed in the shape of the renal pelvis

staghorn calculus

25

cystitis and urethritis are common forms of this type of infection

lower utis

26

name for the diabetes-associated renal changes that comprise diabetic nephropathy

glomerulosclerosis

27

diabetic nepehropathy can be expected with this type of diabetes

type 1

28

normal renal tissue is replaced with this type of tissue in polycystic kidney disease

multiple grapelike cysts (causes gross enlargement of the kidney

29

form appears during infancy or childhood

autosomal recessive

30

form appears during middle age

autosomal dominant

31

acquired form of polycystic kidney disease is

long term kidney disease or dialysis

32

cause of neurogenic bladder

insult to brain, spinal cord, or nerves supplying the lower urinary tract

33

uncontrollable leakage of urine from the bladder during activities

stress incontinence

34

types of activities that can cause stress incontinence

physical exertion or actions that stress the pelvic muscle (laughing, sneezing, coughing, lifting, stretching, running)

35

causes of stress incontinence

weakening of the pelvic floor muscles and urethral stricture from childbirth, pregnancy and menopause, obesity and certain medicatons

36

Inflammation and swelling of the glomeruli of the kidneys

acute glomerulonephritis

37

t or f. acute glomerulonephritis can be primary or secondary to a systemic disease

t

38

acute glomerulonephritis usually follows a ____ of throat or skin

streptococcal bacterial infection

39

acute glomerulonephritis is marked by these 3 things

1. proteinuria
2. edema
4. decreased urine volume

40

acute glomerulonephritis is caused by group A and B ____

hemolytic streptococcus.

41

acute glomerulonephritis can also result from an immune reaction that causes circulating ____ to be trapped within the ____

antigen-antibody complexes; capillaries and glomerulus

42

3 tests for acute glomerulonephritis that reveal bilateral enlargement of the kidneys

1. high blood urea nitrogen levels
2. elevated ESR
3. kidney ureter bladder (KUB)

43

Slowly progressive noninfectious disease that can lead to irreversible renal damage and renal failure.

chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN)

44

advanced stage of chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) results in inflammation followed by the progressive destruction of ____

glomeruli

45

in chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN), ____ lodged in the ____ trigger an inflammatory response and glomerular injury

antigen antibody complexes; glomerular capsular membrane

46

treatment for chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) aims to prevent these 2 conditions

1. CHF
2. uremia

47

Disease of the basement membrane of the glomerulus

nephrotic syndrome

48

another term for nephrotic syndrome

nephrosis

49

Nephrotic syndrome is also sometimes referred to as ____

protein losing kidney

50

nephrotic syndrome is caused by increased ____ of the glomerulus meaning renal damage

permeability

51

3 conditions that can lead to nephrosis

1. DM
2. infections
3. allergic reactions

52

in nephrosis, dietary intake of protein is adjusted to ___

GFR

53

sudden severe function in renal function

acute renal failure (ARF)

54

acute renal failure (ARF) is a common clinical emergency because ____ begin to accumulate in blood causing an acute ____

nitrogenous waste; uremic episode

55

acute renal failure (ARF) is caused by diminished ____ to the kidney and ____ to urine flow

blood flow; mechanical obstructions

56

treatment of ARF aims to reduce _____ damage

permanent kidney

57

gradual progressive loss of nephrons with irreversible loss of renal function and gradual onset uremia

chronic renal failure (CRF)

58

3 conditions that cause chronic renal failure (CRF)

1. glomerulonephritis
2. pyelonephritis
3. polycystic kidneys

59

chronic renal failure (CRF) is often the end stage of chronic ____

renal disease; obstruction of urine flow

60

condition that can occur with chronic renal failure (CRF)

severe anemia

61

inflammation of renal pelvis and connective tissue of one or both kidneys

pyelonephritis

62

pyelonephritis is caused by this bacteria that ascend from the lower urinary tract to the kidneys

e.coli

63

drug to treat pyelonephritis

penicillin flouroquinolones

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abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis caused by pressure from urine that can't flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract

hydronephrosis

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pyelonephritis is caused by a buildup of pressure in the kidneys because of an ____

obstruction

66

surgical removal of the obstruction to treat hydronephrosis; when surgery isn't an option, a ____ may be inserted

nephrostomy tube

67

medical term for kidney stones

renal calculi

68

renal calculi is caused by an excessive amount of ___ or ___

calcium; uric acid

69

4 risk factors for renal calculi

1. prolonged dehydration
2. prolonged immobilization
3. urinary stasis from obstruction
4. crystalline inhibitors

70

2 main treatments for renal calculi

1. extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy
2. electrohydraulic lithotripsy

71

Inflammation of the urinary bladder and urethritis, inflammation of the urethra most common form of lower UTI

infectious cystitis and urethritis

72

4 causes of infectious cystitis and urethritis

1. e. coli
2. klebsiella
3. enterobacter
4. proteus pseudomonas

73

renal changes from diabetes mellitus

diabetic nephropathy

74

term for the changes from DM

glomerulosclerosis

75

diabetic nephropathy occurs when lesions of the glomeruli eventually cause ____ to decrease

filtration rate

76

diabetic nephropathy may also be caused by insufficient control of ____ and ____

blood glucose levels; blood pressure

77

grape-like cyst replaces normal renal tissue

polycystic kidney disease (PKD)

78

t or f. polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is inherited but may not manifest until adolescence/adulthood

t

79

acquired polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a sequela of ____ and/or _____

long term kidney disease; long term dialysis

80

recessive polycystic kidney disease (PKD) appears in ____

infants and children

81

dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) appears in ____

middle aged individuals

82

2 treatment options for polycystic kidney disease (PKD)

1. dialysis
2. kidney transplant

83

in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), there may be surgical removal of kidneys because of these 3 factors

1. pain
2. stones
3. persistent infection

84

dysfunction of the urinary bladder that consists of difficulty in emptying the bladder or urinary incontinence

neurogenic bladder

85

neurogenic bladder results in insult to these 3 areas

1. brain
2. spinal cord
3. other nerves supplying the lower urinary tract

86

treatment for neurogenic bladder aims to prevent ___

UTIs

87

neurogenic bladder is also treated by providing a means of storing urine and emptying the bladder

catheterization

88

uncontrolled leakage of urine from the urinary bladder during physical exertion or actions that stress the pelvic muscles (laughing, sneezing, coughing, etc)

stress incontinence

89

stress incontinence is caused by weakening of these 2 areas

1. pelvic floor muscles
2. urethral structure

90

3 treatments for stress incontinence

1. kegel exercises
2. endoscopy
3. voiding cystourethrogram