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1

En 1841 participó durante unos meses en la colonia socialista de Brook Farm.

In 1841 he [Hawthorne] participated during some months in the socialist colony of Brook Farm.

2

En 1850 publicó la más famosa de sus novelas The scarlet Letter; al año siguiente The House of the Seven gables.

In 1850 he [Hawthorne] published the most famous of his novels, The Scarlet Letter; the following year The House of the Seven Gables.

3

Franklin Pierce, al ser electo president de los EE. UU., en 1853 lo nombró cónsul en Liverpool.

Franklin Pierce, on being elected president of the United States, in 1853 named him [Hawthorne] consul in Liverpool.

4

Vivió luego en Italia, donde escribió The marble Faun.

He [Hawthorne] then lived in Italy, where he wrote The Marble Fawn.

5

A las obras ya mencionadas debemos agregar varias colecciones de cuentos; la más conocida es The Snow Image.

To the works already mentioned we should add various collections of stories; the most well-known is The Snow Image.

6

Por el sentimiento de culpa y la preocupación ética, Hawthorne se vincula con el puritanismo; por el amor de la belleza y la invención fantástica, con otro gran escritor, Edgar Allan Poe.

By the feeling of guilt and the ethical preoccupation, Hawthorne is linked with Puritanism; by the love of the beautiful woman and the fantastic invention, with another great writer, Edgar Allan Poe.

7

Hijo de actores pobres, Edgar Allan Poe (1809 – 49) nació en Boston y fue adoptado por un comerciante, John Allan, cuyo apellido tomó como segundo nombre.

Son of poor actors, Edgan Allan Poe (1809 – 49) was born in Boston and was adopted by a merchant, John Allan, whose surname he [Poe] took as a second [middle] name.

8

Se educó en Virginia y en Inglaterra; el colegio ingles fue descrito por él en el relato fantastic William Wilson, cuyo protagonista muere al matar a su doble, a su otro yo.

He [Poe] was educated in Virginia and in England; the English college was described by him [Poe] in the fantastic story, “William Wilson,” whose protagonist dies on killing his double, his other self.

9

Poe fue expulsado de la Academia Militar de West Point.

Poe was expelled from the Military Academy of West Point.

10

Vivió azarosamente del periodismo; se enemistó con sus más ilustres contemporáneos y acusó de plagio a Longfellow.

He [Poe] lived poorly through journalism; he made enemies with his more illustrious contemporaries and he accused Longfellow of plagiarism.

11

Desde su juventud el alcohol y las neurosis lo destrozaron.

From his youth onward alcohol and neuroses destroyed him [Poe].

12

En 1836 se casó con su prima Virginia Clemm, de trece años; ésta murió tuberculosa en 1847.

In 1836 he [Poe] married himself with his cousion Virginia Clemm, who was thirteen years old; she died from TB in 1847.

13

Poe murió en un hospital de Baltimore; durante la fiebre de su agonia revivió un episodio atroz de su libro The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket.

Poe died in a Baltimore hospital; during the fever of his agony he relived an atrocious episode from his book, The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket.

14

Su vida fue breve y desdichada, si es que la desdicha puede ser breve.

His [Poe’s] life was brief and unhappy, if it is that unhappiness can be brief.

15

Poe, hombre de débil voluntad y urgido por las más contrarias pasiones, profesaba el culto de la razón y de la lucidez.

Poe, a man of weak will and urged by the most contrary passions, professed the cult of reason and of lucidity.

16

Siendo, como era, fundamentalmente romantic, le agradaba negar la inspiración y declaraba que la creación estética procede de la pura inteligencia.

Being, as he [Poe] was, fundamentally romantic, it pleased him to deny [the value of] inspiration and he declared that the aesthetic creation proceeds from pure intelligence.

17

En un trabajo titulado The Philosophy of Composition explica de qué modo escribió su famoso poema El cuervo y analiza, o finge analizar, las diversas etapas de su labor.

In a work titled “The Philsophy of Composition,” he [Poe] explains the fashion by which he wrote his most famous poem, “The Raven,” and analyzes, or pretendes to analyze, the various stages of its labor.

18

Empezó, nos dice, por imponerse un límite de cien versos, ya que una cifra superior hubiera destruido la unidad del efecto buscado y una cifra inferior hubiera sido insuficiente para su intensidad.

He [Poe] began, he tells us, by imposing upon himself a limit of one hundred verses, since a greater number would have destroyed [weakened] the unity of the effect that he sought and a lesser number would have been insufficient for its intensity.

19

(De hecho, El cuervo constaría de 108 versos.)

(In fact, “The Raven” consisted of 108 verses.)

20

Luego pensó que la belleza es indispensable y que de todas las entonaciones poéticas las mejor es la melancólica.

Then he [Poe] thought that beauty is indispensible and that of all the poetic moods the best is melancholy.

21

El estribillo, por su universalidad, le pareció un procedimiento eficaz.

The chorus, because of its universality, seemed to him [Poe] an efficient method.

22

Juzgó que la o y la erre son los sonidos más sonoros; la primera palabra que se le ocurrió fue la palabra Nevermore.

He [Poe] judged that “o” and “r” are the most sonorous sounds; the first word that occurred to him was the word “nevermore.”