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Nursing Concepts > Pain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pain Deck (90)
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1
Q

Acute Pain

A

a physiological mechanism that protects an individual from harmful stimulus (short duration, limited damage)

2
Q

Nociceptor

A

sensory, peripheral pain nerve fiber

3
Q

Prostoglandins

A

a pain-sensitizing substance that surrounds pain fibers in extracellular fluid, spreading pain message & causing inflammatory response

4
Q

Endorphins

A

inhibitory neurotransmitters that decrease neuron activity without directly transferring a nerve signal through a synapse

5
Q

Chronic Pain

A

“persistent non-cancer pain” not protective, prolonged pain varied in intensity & usually lasting longer (> 6 months), doesn’t always have identifiable cause, leads to great personal suffering

6
Q

Cancer Pain

A

caused by tumor progression & related to pathological response processes, invasive procedures, treatment, toxicity, infection & physical limitations

7
Q

Referred Pain

A

pain occuring distant to the actual pain site

8
Q

Patient-Controlled Analgesic

A

drug delivery system that allows patients to self-administer analgesic meds when they want

9
Q

Cutaneous Stimulation

A

stimulation of patient skin to prevent or reduce pain perception

10
Q

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

A

technique in which a battery powered device blocks pain impulses from reaching the spinal cord by delivering weak electrical impulses to the skin surface

11
Q

Relaxation

A

mental & physical freedom from tension & stress that provides individuals with a sense of self-control

12
Q

Guided Imagery

A

method of pain control in which the patient creates a mental image, concentrates on that image & gradually becomes less aware of pain

13
Q

Analgesics

A

drugs that relieve pain

14
Q

Opioids

A

drug derived from the opium poppy or produced synthetically that alters perception of pain & with repeated use, may cause physical/psychological dependence

15
Q

Local Anesthesia

A

medication that causes loss of sensation to a localized body part

16
Q

Epidural Infusion

A

regional anesthesia administered into the epidural space int he spinal cord to block a group of sensory nerve fibers (through a catheter)

17
Q

Somatic Pain

A

pain that originates from skin, muscle, bone, or tissue

18
Q

Visceral Pain

A

pain that originates from viscera or hollow organs

19
Q

Neuropathic Pain

A

pain that originates from nerve damage

20
Q

Phantom Pain

A

pain that is perceived from a missing limb

21
Q

Pain Threshold

A

the least amount of stimulation that a person requires to perceive pain

22
Q

Pain Tolerance

A

maximum amount & duration of pain that person is willing to endure

23
Q

Hyperalgesia

A

heightened, severe response to pain

24
Q

Placebo

A

inactive substance or treatment given instead of one that has a proven effect

25
Q

Pseudoaddiction

A

drug-seeking behavior that simulates true addiction in patients with pain who are receiving inadequate pain medication

26
Q

Properties of Pain

A

subjective highly individualized protective difficult to assess cannot see has limits can delay healing not equal to amount of damage can have without trauma

27
Q

Four Phases of Physiological Process of Pain

A

Transduction Transmission Perception Modulation

28
Q

Transduction

A

process converting energy produced by pain stimuli into electrical energy

29
Q

Transmission

A

process in which cellular damage from injury results in the release of excitatory neurotransmitters

30
Q

Perception

A

process in which the brain & CNS extracts information about pain such as location, duration & quality

31
Q

Modulation

A

process in which the brain releases inhibitory neurotransmitters to hinder the transmission of pain & help produce an analgesic effect

32
Q

Gate Control Theory of Pain

A

special cells in dorsal horn regulate pain transmission control the gate the gate can be opened or closed (allow or block pain impulses)

33
Q

Nursing Diagnoses Applicable for Pain

A

Risk for Caregiver Role Strain Ineffective Coping Fatigue Impaired Physical Motility Acute Pain Chronic Pain Bathing Self-Care Deficit Dressing Self-Care Deficit Risk for Situation Low Self-Esteem Social Isolation

34
Q

Large A Nerve Fibers

A

nerve fibers that when stimulated, close the impulse gate resulting in no pain

35
Q

Small C Nerve Fibers

A

nerve fibers that when stimulated, open the impulse gate resulting in pain

36
Q

Factors Influencing Pain Experience

A

Age Fatigue Neurological Function Gender Attention Previous experience Family Support Spirituality Culture Anxiety Depression Coping Style

37
Q

Idiopathic Pain

A

chronic pain without identifiable cause

38
Q

Components of Pain Assessment

A

“PQRSTU” Palliative or Provocative Factors- what makes pain worse? Quality- describe the pain? Relief measures- what do you take at home? Region- show me where it hurts? Severity- scale of 1-10? Timing- constant, intermittent or both? Ur effect- what does the pain inhibit?

39
Q

Breakthrough Pain

A

transient episodes of pain that occur in patients with chronic pain that has been previously reduced to tolerable levels

40
Q

Nursing Principles for Administering Analgesics

A

Know patient’s previous response to alagesics Select proper medications when more than one is ordered Know accurate dose Assess right time interval for administration Choose right route

41
Q

Excitatory Neurotransmitters

A

prostoglandins histamine bradykinin substance P

42
Q

Inhibitory Neurotransmitters

A

endorphins endogenous opioids serotonin norepinephrine GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)

43
Q

Clinical Approach to Pain Assessment

A

“ABCDE” Ask about pain regularly…Assess pain systematically Believe patient & their family Choose pain control options Deliver interventions logically Empower patients & families…Enable them to control their course

44
Q

Palliative Care

A

care of a patient that offers treatments to help patients live, perhaps years, with a variety of incurable conditions including pain

45
Q

Hospice Care

A

care for the terminally ill allowing patients to continue to live at home in comfort & privacy with help of a healthcare team

46
Q

Reversed

a physiological mechanism that protects an individual from harmful stimulus (short duration, limited damage)

A

Acute Pain

47
Q

Reversed

sensory, peripheral pain nerve fiber

A

Nociceptor

48
Q

Reversed

a pain-sensitizing substance that surrounds pain fibers in extracellular fluid, spreading pain message & causing inflammatory response

A

Prostoglandins

49
Q

Reversed

inhibitory neurotransmitters that decrease neuron activity without directly transferring a nerve signal through a synapse

A

Endorphins

50
Q

Reversed

“persistent non-cancer pain” not protective, prolonged pain varied in intensity & usually lasting longer (> 6 months), doesn’t always have identifiable cause, leads to great personal suffering

A

Chronic Pain

51
Q

Reversed

caused by tumor progression & related to pathological response processes, invasive procedures, treatment, toxicity, infection & physical limitations

A

Cancer Pain

52
Q

Reversed

pain occuring distant to the actual pain site

A

Referred Pain

53
Q

Reversed

drug delivery system that allows patients to self-administer analgesic meds when they want

A

Patient-Controlled Analgesic

54
Q

Reversed

stimulation of patient skin to prevent or reduce pain perception

A

Cutaneous Stimulation

55
Q

Reversed

technique in which a battery powered device blocks pain impulses from reaching the spinal cord by delivering weak electrical impulses to the skin surface

A

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS)

56
Q

Reversed

mental & physical freedom from tension & stress that provides individuals with a sense of self-control

A

Relaxation

57
Q

Reversed

method of pain control in which the patient creates a mental image, concentrates on that image & gradually becomes less aware of pain

A

Guided Imagery

58
Q

Reversed

drugs that relieve pain

A

Analgesics

59
Q

Reversed

drug derived from the opium poppy or produced synthetically that alters perception of pain & with repeated use, may cause physical/psychological dependence

A

Opioids

60
Q

Reversed

medication that causes loss of sensation to a localized body part

A

Local Anesthesia

61
Q

Reversed

regional anesthesia administered into the epidural space int he spinal cord to block a group of sensory nerve fibers (through a catheter)

A

Epidural Infusion

62
Q

Reversed

pain that originates from skin, muscle, bone, or tissue

A

Somatic Pain

63
Q

Reversed

pain that originates from viscera or hollow organs

A

Visceral Pain

64
Q

Reversed

pain that originates from nerve damage

A

Neuropathic Pain

65
Q

Reversed

pain that is perceived from a missing limb

A

Phantom Pain

66
Q

Reversed

the least amount of stimulation that a person requires to perceive pain

A

Pain Threshold

67
Q

Reversed

maximum amount & duration of pain that person is willing to endure

A

Pain Tolerance

68
Q

Reversed

heightened, severe response to pain

A

Hyperalgesia

69
Q

Reversed

inactive substance or treatment given instead of one that has a proven effect

A

Placebo

70
Q

Reversed

drug-seeking behavior that simulates true addiction in patients with pain who are receiving inadequate pain medication

A

Pseudoaddiction

71
Q

Reversed

subjective highly individualized protective difficult to assess cannot see has limits can delay healing not equal to amount of damage can have without trauma

A

Properties of Pain

72
Q

Reversed

Transduction Transmission Perception Modulation

A

Four Phases of Physiological Process of Pain

73
Q

Reversed

process converting energy produced by pain stimuli into electrical energy

A

Transduction

74
Q

Reversed

process in which cellular damage from injury results in the release of excitatory neurotransmitters

A

Transmission

75
Q

Reversed

process in which the brain & CNS extracts information about pain such as location, duration & quality

A

Perception

76
Q

Reversed

process in which the brain releases inhibitory neurotransmitters to hinder the transmission of pain & help produce an analgesic effect

A

Modulation

77
Q

Reversed

special cells in dorsal horn regulate pain transmission control the gate the gate can be opened or closed (allow or block pain impulses)

A

Gate Control Theory of Pain

78
Q

Reversed

Risk for Caregiver Role Strain Ineffective Coping Fatigue Impaired Physical Motility Acute Pain Chronic Pain Bathing Self-Care Deficit Dressing Self-Care Deficit Risk for Situation Low Self-Esteem Social Isolation

A

Nursing Diagnoses Applicable for Pain

79
Q

Reversed

nerve fibers that when stimulated, close the impulse gate resulting in no pain

A

Large A Nerve Fibers

80
Q

Reversed

nerve fibers that when stimulated, open the impulse gate resulting in pain

A

Small C Nerve Fibers

81
Q

Reversed

Age Fatigue Neurological Function Gender Attention Previous experience Family Support Spirituality Culture Anxiety Depression Coping Style

A

Factors Influencing Pain Experience

82
Q

Reversed

chronic pain without identifiable cause

A

Idiopathic Pain

83
Q

Reversed

“PQRSTU” Palliative or Provocative Factors- what makes pain worse? Quality- describe the pain? Relief measures- what do you take at home? Region- show me where it hurts? Severity- scale of 1-10? Timing- constant, intermittent or both? Ur effect- what does the pain inhibit?

A

Components of Pain Assessment

84
Q

Reversed

transient episodes of pain that occur in patients with chronic pain that has been previously reduced to tolerable levels

A

Breakthrough Pain

85
Q

Reversed

Know patient’s previous response to alagesics Select proper medications when more than one is ordered Know accurate dose Assess right time interval for administration Choose right route

A

Nursing Principles for Administering Analgesics

86
Q

Reversed

prostoglandins histamine bradykinin substance P

A

Excitatory Neurotransmitters

87
Q

Reversed

endorphins endogenous opioids serotonin norepinephrine GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)

A

Inhibitory Neurotransmitters

88
Q

Reversed

“ABCDE” Ask about pain regularly…Assess pain systematically Believe patient & their family Choose pain control options Deliver interventions logically Empower patients & families…Enable them to control their course

A

Clinical Approach to Pain Assessment

89
Q

Reversed

care of a patient that offers treatments to help patients live, perhaps years, with a variety of incurable conditions including pain

A

Palliative Care

90
Q

Reversed

care for the terminally ill allowing patients to continue to live at home in comfort & privacy with help of a healthcare team

A

Hospice Care