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What is the most sensitive indicator for intravascular volume depletion following surgery?

Resting tachycardia


Pattern of dysphagia
- oropharyngeal
- esophageal: motor & mechanical (progressive & intermittent each)

1. Oropharyngeal: difficulty initiating a swallow. a/w cough, choking, nasal regurgitation

2. Esophageal: food getting stuck in esophagus
A. Motor disorder (solids +/- liquids)
- Intermittent: diffuse esophageal spasm, NEMD (nonspecific esophageal motility disorder)
- Progressive: scleroderma (chronic heart burn), achalasia (regurgitation +/- resp symptoms +/- weight loss)

B. Mechanical obstruction
- Intermittent: esophageal ring
- Progressive: peptic stricture (chronic heart burn), esophageal/cardia cancer (elderly, weight loss, anaemia)


Discuss the types of haemorrhages involved in haemorrhoids depending on time
- Primary Haemorrhage
- Reactionary Haemorrhage
- Secondary Haemorrhage

- Primary Haemorrhage: Haemorrhage occurring at the time of Injury/Trauma/Surgery

- Reactionary Haemorrhage: Haemorrhage occurring within first 24 hrs following Trauma/Surgery

- Secondary Haemorrhage: Haemorrhage occurring after 7 -14 days after Trauma/Surgery.
The attributed cause is infection and sloughing away of the blood vessels


All of the following occur commonly in delirium tremens except:
a. visual hallucinations
b. drowsiness
c. tremor
d. tachycardia
e. sweating

b. drowsiness

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