GI - Rectal bleeding investigations Flashcards Preview

YA - Interactive seminars/University lectures > GI - Rectal bleeding investigations > Flashcards

Flashcards in GI - Rectal bleeding investigations Deck (23)
Loading flashcards...

(4) types of rectal bleeding

- overt red bleeding
- malaena
- massive/acute bleeding
- occult bleeding


What is massive/acute rectal bleeding?
- consequence
- prognosis
- sources

Substantial bleeding that creates haemodynamic instability -> requires admission & transfusion.

Early cessation usual but 15% continue to bleed/rebleed.

Most cases due to a (right sided) colonic source; diverticular disease, angiodysplasia.

Up to 25% cases due to small bowel pathollogy.

Occasional cases due to rectum: due to briskly bleeding GI problem.


A negative nasogastric tube aspirate when looking for stomach bleeding:

does not rule out bleeding from the stomach. the blood may have clotted and unable to be aspirated.


Mx of massive/acute rectal bleeding

- resuscitation
- reversal of anticoagulation
- elective colonoscopy
- CT angiogram, nasogastric tube, sigmoidoscopy,


Describe occult bleeding

- screen detected (FOB)
- can Px as anaemia (severe menorrhagia, coeliac, vegans, alcoholics, carcinoma of caecum, poor nutrition)
- colonoscopy is mandatory for both
- other tests if colonoscopy negative

*Fecal occult blood test is a screening tool and NEVER a diagnostic test


Causes of overt rectal bleeding

Anorectal: haemorrhoids, fissure
Colorectal: cancer, plyps, colitis


Causes of anaemia

severe menorrhagia, coeliac, vegans, alcoholics, carcinoma of caecum, poor nutrition, GI bleeding, any blood loss


Appearance of rectal prolapse

4-6cm in length, eccentric, one sided, rounded


What are haemorrhoids?
- structure
- Px
- worse with...
- Rx

bunch of arterioles (NOT venous c.f. rectal venous varices in portal HTN).

May bleed, prolapse or thrombose.
Blood is bright red in the toilet bowl/paper, not mixed in the stool.
Worse when constipated & straining.

Rx: high fibre diet (15g/day) first line. If failed, consider banding/surgery.


Describe anal fissure
- Px
- 2 types of pain

- Px: rectal bleeding (usually less than haemorrhoids)
- common, very painful
- 2 types of pain: severe sharp tearing pain on defecation & dull ache for 1-2 hours afterwards (muscle/sphincter spasm)


Appearance of bowel cancer inside bowel.
- Px
- colour of blood

Mass lesion, everted edges, central ulceration

Can Px with bright rectal bleeding but usually DARK red bleeding + blood within the stool.

Malignant bowel bleeding is dark, as they invade veins.


Describe anal wart
- cause
- anal cancer type
- Rx

Due to HPV
Anal cancer is SCC (tiny proportion of GI malignancy)
Rx: radiotherapy + chemotherapy WITHOUT surgery. Better prognosis (80% cure rate)


What should you ask in a rectal bleeding Hx?

- colour of blood
- anorectal symptoms (pain, anal swelling)
- colorectal symptoms (change in bowel habit, unsatisfied defaecation, passage of mucus)
- how long
- FMHx


How do you do an anal inspection?

- good lighting
- left lateral
- slow gentle movements (even parting the buttocks can hurt a fissure pt)
- look for: fissures, haemorrhoids, thrombosed perianal haematomas, fistula, warts, anal cancer


How do you perform a DRE?

Use pulp not tip of finger, gentle.

- character of mucosa
- presacral space
- gently increasing pressure can reach 10cm in most
- cervix can be a trap (the rectal mucosa is normal overlying the hard cervix)
- feel for prostate
- check for blood on the glove


What rectal bleeding should you be concerned about?
- colour
- stool
- mucus
- change in bowel habits
- age
- FMHx

- dark marroon
- mixed
- mucus present
- change in bowel habits
- >40yo
- FMHx positive


How does R colon cancer present?

Anaemia, mass


How does L. colon cancer present?

- alternating constipation and diarrhoea
- constipation only
- colicky lower abdo pain
- dark blood in stool


How does rectal cancer present?

- rectal bleeding; dark but sometimes bright
- unsatisfied defaecation
- passage of mucus


Prognosis of bowel cancer

Five year survival depends on ACPS grading (A-D) ranges from 90% to 5%.


Indications for colonoscopy

- rectal bleeding: persistent, dark bleeding, >40yo
- change in bowel habit
- iron deficiency anaemia
- screening: positive FOBT
- surveillance: e.g. positive FMHx


How do you Rx anal fissure?

GTN in anus. 3 times a week for 3 weeks -> review.

See if symptoms have resolved, if not, look further for any other causes of bleeding e.g. colonoscopy


Bowel cancer screening in Australia currently

5 yearly fecal occult blood test (FOBT) from 50yo. (but the evidence is every 2 yearly) -> 2 yearly test from 2020.

$7 per test

Decks in YA - Interactive seminars/University lectures Class (87):