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Flashcards in OPTH - Visual loss Deck (32)
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What 3 things should you always test and record in a visual loss clinical examination?

1. visual acuity
2. pupil reactions
3. intraocular pressure


What is ice-test useful for?

Ruling in Myasthenia Gravis as the cause for ptosis leading to visual impairment.

With ice on the eyes, the ptosis is temporarily & partially resolved in MG.


If Transient blurring of vision +/- epiphora (watering), what should you think of?

Tear-film disruption


Describe trachoma

•Agent: Chlamydia Trachomatis
•Prolific in arid poverty-stricken regions with poor hygiene practices
•Chronic infection leads to scarring of the conjunctiva, entropion and blindness

A big health concern in outback Australia


Describe corneal oedema
- Hx
- O/E
- Rx

- “My vision has been gradually getting blurry over months. I’m in my 50s. Maybe I have cataracts?”
- Corneal oedema. Descemet’s Membrane Folds, normal IOP
- Decompensation of corneal endothelial pump leads to corneal oedema. Usually bilateral
- Rx: topical 5% sodium chloride to dehydrate cornea. Corneal graft surgery


Describe keratoconus
- Hx
- O/E
- Rx

= Progressive thinning, weakness and protrusion of the cornea

- “My vision has been getting blurry again. I’ve had several new pairs of glasses this year, but it keeps getting worse”
- vision fixed with pin hole, normal IOP, irregular curvature of cornea
- Rx: hard contact lens, cross-linking, corneal transplant


Describe acute angle closure glaucoma
- Hx
- O/E
- Rx

- 2 hour history of painful UNILATERAL red eye with worsening vision
- increased IOP, cloudy oedematous cornea
- EMERGENCY (high IOP can lead to blindness)
- Rx: IOP reduction. Acetazolamide stat (IV & oral). topical beta blocker, topical steroid. Peripheral iridotomy laser once IOP reduced


Describe Cataract
- Hx
- O/E
- causes
- Rx

- “My vision has been getting progressively more blurry. I experience glare and colours don’t seem as bright anymore.”
- VA not improved with pin hole. Nuclear sclerosis
- age-related, drugs (steroids, amiodarone), trauma, DM, etc
- Rx: lens removal & intraocular lens isnertion


What is lens dislocation usually associated with?

Connective tissue disorders (e.g. Marfan's)


What does “I lost vision in my left eye today. It was like a curtain came down over my vision” indicate?

Vitreous haemorrhage

- Often resolves slowly over weeks/months.
- Can require vitrectomy to clear blood.
- Risk of re-bleed.


What are important causes of vitreous haemorrhage?

-Retinal Detachment.
-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy


What does “Flashes of light and floaters in the visual field of my left eye” indicate?

Retinal detachment

- emergency. Review by opthal within 24 hrs
- Rx: surgical repair


What is a Weiss ring?

A floater that is not due to retinal detachment

Sign of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD)


What does "Sudden, painless unilateral loss of vision" indicate?

Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

-Affected eye may have RAPD
-Emergency (irreversible ischaemic damage to retina >90mins). Lie pt flat to help maintain circulation, acetazolamide IV stat & ocular massage to decrease IOP.
- Urgent priority to rule out GCA (ESR, CRP)
-Poor prognosis of maintaining good vision

It could also indicate central retinal VEIN occlusion.


What are common causes of central retinal artery occlusion?

-Embolic Sources
-Haematological disorders (eg: hypercoagulable states)
-Inflammatory Causes. e.g. Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) (approx 3%)


What is "cherry red spot" a keyword for?

Central retinal artery occlusion

A finding on fundal exam
Other findings:
- pale retina
- arteriolar attenuation


Fundoscopy findings of central retinal vein occlusion

- retinal haemorrhages all quadrants
- macular oedema
- widespread cotton wool spots


Clinical associations & Rx of central retinal vein occlusion

Clinical associations
- atherosclerosis: HTN, DM, hchol, smoking
- inflammatory diseases: sarcoidosis, Behcet's, SLE
- blood dyscrasias: protein C&S deficiency, antiphospholipid syndrome
- glaucoma, orbital mass

- lifestyle changes
- IOP control
- intravitreal steroids & Anti-VEGF


Compare Hx of dry age-related macular degeneration & wet age-related macular degeneration

- GRADUAL decrease in central vision (years)
- Central Scotoma
- FHx of macular degeneration

- RAPID decrease central vision (weeks to months)
- Metamorphopsia
- central scotoma


Compare Rx of dry age-related macular degeneration & wet age-related macular degeneration

- supportive care
- quit smoking. Vitamin suppl

- anti-VEGF intravitreal injections


Compare pathology of dry age-related macular degeneration & wet age-related macular degeneration

- Loss of Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE)/ photoreceptors
- Associated with increasing age and smoking

- Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV) – growth of abnormal leaky vessels in the RPE


What is the greatest cause for visual disability in working age people in developed nations?

Diabetic macular oedema

Its features on fundoscopy include:
- circinate ring
- lipid exudates
- intraretinal haemorrhages


What does "very poor night vision. Blindness tends to run in my family" & annular scotoma O/E indicate?

Retinitis Pigmentosa

-Most common retinal dystrophy (1:3000-5000)
-May be sporadic or inherited
-Typically affects rods first (“Rod-Cone Dystrophy”)
-Usually presents in young adults


What are the causes of raised ICP?

Mass effect

Increased CSF production
-Choroid plexus tumour

Reduced CSF reabsorption
-Venous Sinus Thrombosis
-Aqueduct/foramen stenosis
-Idiopathic Intracranial hypertension


Ix & Rx of idiopathic intracranial hypertension

-Urgent neuroimaging
-Lumbar Puncture if cause not clear (must exclude space occupying lesion first!!!)

-Weight loss is the most effective treatment
-Medical Rx: acetazolamide, other diuretics, corticosteroids
-Surgical Rx: Optic nerve sheath fenestration, LP Shunt


What does “I woke this morning and have very poor vision in one eye.” indicate?

Optic neuritis

Usually unilateral


What neurological condition is highly associated with optic neuritis?

Multiple sclerosis

Prevalence of optic neuritis in patients with Multiple Sclerosis: 70%!


Rx of optic neuritis

-MRI Brain and urgent referral to a Neurologist to investigate for MS
-High dose prednisolone regime (IV methylprednisolone 1g/day for 3/7, then oral 1mg/kg daily for 11 days, then wean over 4 days) may speed up visual recovery.
-Does not appear to impact on long term visual prognosis


Describe giant cell arteritis (GCA).
- classic clinical Px
- Ix
- Rx

-Medium to large vessel vasculitis
-Involves arteries with a greater quantity elastic tissue in the media and adventitia

-Scalp Tenderness
-Jaw claudication
-Associated Polymyalgia Rheumatica
-Acute unilateral loss of vision

- ESR (>100), CRP, temporal artery biopsy

Rx: high dose prednisolone (40-60mg/day)


If one eye is affected, what's the risk of the second eye losing vision if untreated in GCA?



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