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Flashcards in peds Deck (41)
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31

sickle cell disease

hereditary form of anemia
normal hemoglobin is partly or completely replaced by abnormal hemoglobin and sickle shaped RBCs

s/s
pain
anorexia
exercise intolerance
fatigue
malaise

sickle cell crisis:
decreased blood flow-- decreased O2-- pain

treatment:
bedrest
****hydration (push apart sickled cells and improves circulation)
analgesics
antibiotics
blood transfusions
O2
hydroxurea

32

duchennes muscular dystrophy

inherited as a x-linked recessive trait

s/s:
lordosis (curvature of lower spine)
waddling gait
frequent falls
weakness in muscles
toe walking
Gower's sign (climbing/walking up to get off of floor)

treatment:
maintain optimal muscle function with PT
prevent contractures
steroids to improve muscle strength and respiratory function
support groups
palliative care

33

tet spells

hyper-cyanotic spells
seen in children with tetraology of fallot

treatment:
knee to chest position (decreases venous return from the lower extremities and increases systemic resistance which diverts blood to the pulmonary artery for oxygenation)
100% O2
morphine for sedation
monitor CO

prevention:
quiet play
minimize stress
respond to crying quick
usually do to congenital heart defects

34

UTI

s/s
in newborns and children under 2 (nonspecific s/s seem to be a GI issue)
failure to thrive
feeding problems
vomiting
diarrhea

causes:
renal anomalies
constipation
bubble baths
poor hygiene
pin worms
sexual activity (sexual abuse)

s/s over 2yo:
frequency
dysuria
fever
flank pain
hematuria
foul smelling urine

diagnosis:
urine specimen
most accurate = catheterization

treatment:
antibiotics
teach prevention:
proper wiping
no bubble baths
cotton underwear
limited carbonated drinks

35

hydrocephalus

disturbance of the ventricular circulation of CSF
CSF builds up and causes high ICP

s/s
bulging fontanelle with head enlargement
dilated scalp veins
depressed/sunken eyes
irritable and changes in LOC
high pitched cry
setting sun sign (you can see white all the way around the iris)

diagnosis:
head circumference (up to 3yo)

surgical treatment:
insert VP shunt
postop:
measure head circumference
assess for bulging fontanels and widening cranial suture lines
monitor temp
supine position

frequently associated with myelomeningocele:
protect the sack and don't let it rupture
should be lying prone
cover sack with sterile dressing that is moist

36

scoliosis

musculoskeletal disorder consisting of lateral curvature and rotation of the spin

idiopathic or congenital

factors:
heavy backpacks
bags
carrying children on hips

treatment:
observation
orthosis (supports and braces)
operation (spinal fusion w/ rods)

37

chicken pox

communicable disease that is rare
same virus causes shingles as they get older
prevent infection of the lesions
contagious
varicella zoster (vaccine)
home remedies:
oatmeal bath and baking soda

38

authoritarian

highly controlling
expects to be obeyed
inflexible rules

39

authoritative

sets reasonable limits on behavior
encourages growing autonomy of child
open communication

40

permissive

few or no restraints
unconditional love
much freedom
little guidance
no limit setting

41

indifferent

no limit setting
lacks affection for the child
focused on own life