Flashcards in Pelvic Limb Q&A and Clinical Deck (60)
what is another name for the tarsus
what is the relatively immovable joint between the sacrum and ilium?
what is the sacrotuberous ligament?
band of connective tissue from the tuber ischiaticum to sacrum in the dog, NOT THE CAT
What is the ligament from the fovea capitis to the acetabular fossa?
ligament of the head of the femur (formerly round ligament of the femur)
What articulates to form the hip joint?
acetabulum (os coxae) & head of femur
What are the fibrocartilagenous discs between condyles of the femur and tibia?
Medial and lateral menisci
How are cruciate ligaments named?
for their attachment to the tibia
Which collateral ligament attaches to a meniscus?
List the sesamoid bones of the stifle
Patella, 2 in head of gastrocnemius muscle (fabellae) & one in popliteal tendon
List the joints of the hock
Tibiotarsal, tarsocrural or talocrural joint
Proximal intertarsal joint (PIT)
Distal intertarsal joint (DIT)
Tarsometatarsal joint (TMt)
In what domestic species is the exact configuration of the tarsus clinically most important?
Body wall closing the pelvic outlet around the terminations of the digestive & urogenital tracts
what is the ischiorectal fossa?
Depression lateral to the anus filled with fat
What makes up the pelvic diaphragm?
Coccygeus and levator ani muscles
how do the pelvic diaphragm muscles relate to each other?
Coccygeus = more lateral than the levator ani & the levator ani = deep & caudal to the coccygeus m.
What is the perineal body?
Fibrous & muscular tissue uniting the anal canal and vagina or bulb of penis
Where does the iliopsoas muscle insert?
lesser trochanter of the femur
what is the function of the iliopsoas muscle?
major flexor of the hip
what are the extensors of the stifle and what innervates them?
cranial thigh muscles (quadriceps) and femoral nerve
what is the action and innervation of the medial thigh muscles?
adduction, obturator nerve (pectineus, gracilis and adductor mm)
list the hamstrings muscles from lateral to medial
Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus
What are the insertions of the superficial digital flexor and deep digital flexor in the dogs pelvic limb?
SDF = middle phalanges; DDF = distal phalanges
what are the actions of the crural muscles? innervation?
craniolateral: extensors of the digits and flexors of the tarsus, innervated by the common fibular nerve ; caudal:flexors of the digits and extensors of the tarsus, innervated by tibial nerve
what is the composite tendon inserting on the calcaneus? what are its main components?
common calcanean tendon; SDF and gastrocnemius
What is required to evaluate coxofemoral luxation radiographically?
2 views are needed to ascertain direction of luxation; craniodorsal is most common
In young dogs, what bone has a growth plate which looks like a fracture?
what does a skyline/tangential view of the stifle show?
depth of trochlear groove, patella and femoropatellar joint space
on the mediolateral projection of the stifle what is the radiolucent density seen in the triangle formed by the femur, tibia, and distal patellar ligament?
what are the four sesamoid bones that should not be mistaken for fracture fragments in radiographs of the stifle joint?
patella, 2 of gastrocnemius muscle and one in popliteal tendon
how is the lateral side of the DP view of the tarsus easily identified?
fourth tarsal bone is 2-story: on lateral aspect
what is the radiographic landmark for the tarsus? what does it tell you?
calcaneus; it is on the lateral and palmar side
how does the "pinky" naming obliques done?
1) flex your little finger representing the calcaneus (lateral and palmar)
2) point opposite index finger (primary beam) at either medial or lateral dorsal surface of hand
3) look down the "beam" finger to match amount of pinky seen with calcaneus in film, either highlighted or overlapped
4) start name with dorsal:
-Dorsomedial if pinky and calcaneus overlap
-Dorsolateral if pinky and calcaneus are highlighted
5) then name where beam exits your hand and lastly add oblique:
- Dorsolateral palmaromedial oblique
what tarsal surfaces are highlighted in the DLMPO view?
Dorsomedial and PL sides of tarsus
How does an animal with hypertrophic osteodystrophy present?
young dog, swelling around the metaphyseal region of long bones of limbs, fever and lameness
what are the classical radiographic signs of hypertrophic osteodystrophy?
bone cuffing around the metaphyseal region and double physes
what is hypertrophic osteopathy?
lamellar periosteal proliferation on long bones of extremities associated with space occupying lesion of thorax causing lameness and pain
what is seen radiographically in hypertrophic osteopathy?
periosteal proliferation around diaphyses of affected bones
is patellar luxation more common in dogs or cats? small breeds or large? lateral or medial?
Dogs > cats, toy >>larger breeds, medial > lateral in all breeds/sizes
what physical manipulation is diagnostic for rupture of the dranial cruciate ligament?
cranial drawer sign
what three structures are commonly injured with car contact to the lateral side of the stifle?
rupture of cranial cruciate ligament, tear of medial collateral ligament & tear of medial meniscus
list a few surgical procedures for ruptured cranial cruciate ligament?
patellar tendon replacement, fibular head transposition, and imbrication
how is tarsal subluxation or luxation treated?
arthrodesis (fuse joint) by curetting off cartilage, adding cancellous bone and pin bone plate or tension band wire to immobilize
in a dorsal hip approach, hat structure must be avoided?
ischiatic nerve and caudal gluteal vessels
where should injection into the hamstrings be given and why?
lateral or medial to junction of biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscle to protect ischiatic nerve
what muscle is cut to relieve the pain in hip dysplasia in the dog?
pectineus - pectineal tenotomy
what is the most common procedure to check the reflexes of the pelvic limb?
what is fibrotic myopathy?
secondary to injury = shortening due to scaring which results in gait abnormalities
list the muscles involved with injury to the femoral, obturator, common fibular nerves?
femoral: quadriceps = can't bear weight
obturator: adductor mm = downer animal, slip sideways
common fibular: extensors of digits = knuckling over
where is a good place to take the pulse in carnivores?
femoral artery in femoral triangle
where is venipuncture performed in the pelvic limb of the dog?
lateral sapphenous vein where it crosses lateral leg; or easier is its diving into hamstring muscles
where is venipuncture performed in the pelvic limb of the cat?
medial saphenous vein
where does a saddle thrombus in a cat occur?
termination of aorta
where can a pulse be taken in carnivores if the femoral artery is inaccessible during surgery?
dorsal pedal, brachial, lingual, or common carotid arteries
what results from femoral nerve injury and why?
inability to bear weight, can't extend stifle - analgesia to medial limb (saphenous nerve)
injury to what nerve causes lateral slipping on slick surfaces?
what are teh signs of fibular nerve damage?
knuckling over, analgesia to dorsal pes
what are signs of tibial nerve damage?
little; calcanean closer to ground, analgesia plantar pes
how does an animal compensate for peroneal nerve damage?
by flipping paw as advanced
what are the signs of complete ischiatic nerve damage?
unstable, can bear weight (femoral nerve is OK); analgesia to entire leg except medially